Present Tense Copulas (am, is, are)

In Kurmanji the verb "bûn" (to be) is the copula that connects the subject with the complement. The full conjugation of the verb "to be" (bûn) in the present tense is as follows:

Ez ...... im I am...
Tu....... î You are...
Ew ..... e He/She/It is...
Em ..... in We are...
Hûn ... in You are...
Ew ......in They are...

Examples:

Ez xwendekar im. (I am a student).
Tu xwendekar î. (You are a student).
Ew xwendekar e. (He/she is a student).
Em xwendekar in. (We are students).
Hûn xwendekar in. (You (pl.) are students).
Ew xwendekar in. (They are students).

 

Ez baş im. (I am fine).
Tu baş î. (You are fine).
Ew baş e. (He/she is fine).
Em baş in. (We are fine).
Hûn baş in. (You (pl.) are fine).
Ew baş in. (They are fine).


Ew Kurd e?
Is he/she Kurdish?

Ez trimbêlfiroş im.
I am a car dealer.

Tu dirêj î.
You are tall.

Em jîr in.
We are clever.

 

Note that in the southern version the first person plural (Em) receives the copula "în" instead of "in" if the complement ends in a consonant, e.g., "Em xwendekar în" (We are students).

If the complement ends in a vowel the present tense copulas take the following forms:

Ez ..... me I am...
Tu ..... yî You are...
Ew .... ye He/she/it is...
Em .... ne We are...
Hûn ... ne You are...
Ew ..... ne They are...


Examples:

Ez mamosta me. (I am a teacher).
Tu mamosta yî. (You are a teacher).
Ew mamosta ye. (He/she is a teacher).
Em mamosta ne. (We are teachers).
Hûn mamosta ne. (You are teachers).
Ew mamosta ne. (They are teachers).

 

Ez amade me. (I am ready).
Tu amade yî. (You are ready).
Ew amade ye. (He/she is ready).
Em amade ne. (We are ready).
Hûn amade ne. (You are ready).
Ew amade ne. (They are ready).


Em birçî ne.
We are hungry.

Tu tî yî.
You are thirsty.

Ew spehî ye.
He/she/it is beautiful.

 

Note that in the southern version the first person plural (Em) receives the copula "yne" instead of "ne" if the complement ends in a vowel, e.g., "Em amade yne" (We are ready).


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