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Lesson 2: Gàatìhng Sìhngyùhn


(Chàhn Gihtmìhng tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih giu1
The marker *-jo* is attached to the end of a verb to indicate perfective aspect when the event is seen as complete. In this sentence, *giujó* signals a sequence of events where the first event (*giujó* 'order [food]') is completed before the next event (sitting
at a table) begins.
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dī yéh sihk, chóh hái chāantói bihn, yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.2 yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.
The construction *yātbihn* ...*yātbihn* .... is used to indicate that two events occur at once---in this sentence, chatting and eating.
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) Play Video

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Chàhn: Ōn-Néih, hái Jùnggwok3 hái Jùnggwok
*Hái* 'at, in' is a location (locative) marker in Cantonese. It precedes the place: use+*hái*+place as in this sentence. The locative phrase typically precedes the main verb as you can see throughout this lesson. This sentence then is literally 'in China accustomed QFP (Question Final Particle),' or more naturally 'Are you [getting] used to China?"

*Hái* can also stand on its own as a stative verb (that is, it includes the sense of being) as it does later in this lesson: *Daihdái hái Náuyeuk* 'My younger brother is in New York.'
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gwaan m̀hgwaan a?
Lòh: Gwodākheui4 Gwodākheui
A colloquial expression meaning 'getting by, getting along' or literally 'able to pass.'
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.
Chàhn: Gwa m̀hgwajyuh ūkkéi a?
Lòh: Gwajyuh a. Dahkbiht gwajyuh5 gwajyuh
*Gwajyuh* means 'to miss' (as in family or friends). Another way to express that you miss someone is with *séuhng*.
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bàhbà, màhmà.
Chàhn: Néihdeih ūkkéi yáuh6 yáuh
*Yáuh* has two different but related senses: 'to have' and 'there is/are.' In this sentence it has the former meaning. *Yáuh* is the only verb that cannot take the ordinary negative marker *m̀h-*. Instead, Cantonese has the irregular form *móuh* for 'not have' or 'there is/are none.'
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géidògo yàhn a?
Lòh: Ngóh ūkkéi yáuh ńghgo yàhn: Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.7 Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.
When listing family members, Chinese typically list them from eldest to youngest, but with oneself last. Within age groups, the male is usually listed first. This pattern is part of the broader practice in Chinese to list largest to smallest: addresses, dates, etc.
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Chàhn: Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?8 Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?
Hái 'at, in' can stand on its own as a stative verb (that is, it includes the 'to be' sense) as it does several times in this lesson.
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Lòh: M̀hhaih. Kéuihdeih dōu hái Méihgwok. Bàhbà, màhmà hái Dākjàu, sailóu hái Náuyeuk, gàjé hái Gàjàu.
Chàhn: A-yèh, a-màh nē?
Lòh: Kéuihdeih tùhng Ngóh a-sūk, a-sám yātchàih, jyuh hái Faatgwokge Bàlàih9 Faatgwokge Bàlàih
Notice that the modification order is the opposite of English and follows that general Cantonese pattern of large to small: France, Paris.
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Chàhn: Néihge pàhngyáuh Làhm Yèuhngjí yáuhmóuh10 yáuhmóuh
The form *yáuh* 'to have' is not negated with the usual negative affix *m̀h*. 'Not have' is expressed with the irregular *móuh* and is part of the choice question form *yáuhmóuh*, here meaning 'Do [you] have' (lit. 'have-not have').
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hìngdaih jímúih ga?
Lòh: Kéuih Yáuh yatgo gòhgō, tùhng léuhnggo mùihmúi.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih jouh mātyéh 11
A variant of the question particle *a*, *ā* carries a more animated mood when pronounced in the high-level tone. It can also mark a more lively statement as it does two exchanges later.
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?
Lòh: Gòhgō haih gùngchìhngsì, léuhnggo mùihmúi haih hohksàang. Daaihmúi hái Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn12 Daaihmúi hái Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn
This sentence displays the typical word order of Cantonese: Subject+Coverbial Phrase+Verb+Object. Literally:

Daaihmúi hái Dònggìng daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn.
big younger sister at Tokyo university study English
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, Saimúi juhng duhk gán13 gán
The aspect particle *-gán* indicates that this is an ongoing event. (see the section on aspect in "Conventions and Grammatical Terms" in the Additional Notes at the end of this lesson).

This sentence displays the typical word order of Cantonese:
Subject--Coverbial Phrase--Verb--Object:

Saimúi hái gòujùng duhkgán syù
younger sister at highschool study-ASP book(s)

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gōujùng.
Chàhn: Ah, Géi hóu ā.
Lòh: Haih la, Làhm Yèuhngjí séung jòu gàan fóng, a-Mìhng, néih jì m̀hjì
bīndouh yáuh fóng chēutjòu a?
Chàhn: Fuhgahn yáuh yāt gàan14 gàan
Classifier for houses, rooms, buildings, etc. Typically, a number or specifier precedes the classifier and the noun (NU/SP+CL+Noun). The noun is optional when understood. Cantonese also allows deletion of the number "one" as in the previous sentence.
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fóng yiu chēutjòu. Ngóh 15
Literally 'to hit' *dá* can be used as part of the phrase 'to make a telephone call.' *Dá* is sometimes used as part of expressions that indicate that an action is initiated: *dáhòi syù* 'to open a book,' *dáhòi dāng* 'to turn on a light,' etc.
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dihnwá
mahnhah, 16 mahnhah,
A common way in Cantonese to express doing something more casually is by the structure verb+*háh*, where *háh* literally means 'a little.' Another way to express the same idea in Cantonese is with the following structure: verb+yāt+verb where *yāt* is literally 'one.'
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hóu m̀hhóu?
Lòh: Màhfàahn17 Màhfàahn
Literally meaning ' to trouble,' *máhfàahn* is used here in its conventional sense of thanking and acknowledging a person's efforts on your behalf.
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néih le.
Chàhn: M̀hwúih màhfàahn. Ngóh tìngyaht góng béi néih tèng18 góng béi néih tèng
This is a common way to express 'to tell somebody something,' (literally, 'say give you to listen' ). There are variations of this structure, such as *góng béi néih jì* (literally, 'say give you know').
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, hóu ma?
Lòh: Hóu a, m̀hgòisaai19 m̀hgòisaai
The suffix *saai* 'completely' is added to *m̀hgòi* 'thank you' (literally, 'should not') to intensify the meaning. Cantonese has two basic words for thank you. *M̀hgòi* is typically used to express thanks for doing something on one's behalf (hence its literal meaning) . *Dòjeh* (lit. much thanks) is usually used when a gift is given but can be used to strongly thank someone for a favor as well.
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.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
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[ Conventions and Grammatical Terms20 Conventions and Grammatical Terms

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| Particles21 Particles

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| Family Relationships22 Family Relationships

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Place Names23 Place Names

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| Numbers Numbers
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| Dates Dates
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| 24

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Photo - Children25 Photo - Children

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| Photo - Son and Mom26 Photo - Son and Mom

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]


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Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

 

▲ Hide Footnotes

  1. The marker *-jo* is attached to the end of a verb to indicate perfective aspect when the event is seen as complete. In this sentence, *giujó* signals a sequence of events where the first event (*giujó* 'order [food]') is completed before the next event (sitting
    at a table) begins.

  2. yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.

    The construction *yātbihn* ...*yātbihn* .... is used to indicate that two events occur at once---in this sentence, chatting and eating.

  3. hái Jùnggwok

    *Hái* 'at, in' is a location (locative) marker in Cantonese. It precedes the place: use+*hái*+place as in this sentence. The locative phrase typically precedes the main verb as you can see throughout this lesson. This sentence then is literally 'in China accustomed QFP (Question Final Particle),' or more naturally 'Are you [getting] used to China?"

    *Hái* can also stand on its own as a stative verb (that is, it includes the sense of being) as it does later in this lesson: *Daihdái hái Náuyeuk* 'My younger brother is in New York.'

  4. Gwodākheui

    A colloquial expression meaning 'getting by, getting along' or literally 'able to pass.'

  5. gwajyuh

    *Gwajyuh* means 'to miss' (as in family or friends). Another way to express that you miss someone is with *séuhng*.

  6. yáuh

    *Yáuh* has two different but related senses: 'to have' and 'there is/are.' In this sentence it has the former meaning. *Yáuh* is the only verb that cannot take the ordinary negative marker *m̀h-*. Instead, Cantonese has the irregular form *móuh* for 'not have' or 'there is/are none.'

  7. Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.

    When listing family members, Chinese typically list them from eldest to youngest, but with oneself last. Within age groups, the male is usually listed first. This pattern is part of the broader practice in Chinese to list largest to smallest: addresses, dates, etc.

  8. Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?

    Hái 'at, in' can stand on its own as a stative verb (that is, it includes the 'to be' sense) as it does several times in this lesson.

  9. Faatgwokge Bàlàih

    Notice that the modification order is the opposite of English and follows that general Cantonese pattern of large to small: France, Paris.

  10. yáuhmóuh

    The form *yáuh* 'to have' is not negated with the usual negative affix *m̀h*. 'Not have' is expressed with the irregular *móuh* and is part of the choice question form *yáuhmóuh*, here meaning 'Do [you] have' (lit. 'have-not have').

  11. A variant of the question particle *a*, *ā* carries a more animated mood when pronounced in the high-level tone. It can also mark a more lively statement as it does two exchanges later.

  12. Daaihmúi hái Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn

    This sentence displays the typical word order of Cantonese: Subject+Coverbial Phrase+Verb+Object. Literally:

    Daaihmúi hái Dònggìng daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn.
    big younger sister at Tokyo university study English

  13. gán

    The aspect particle *-gán* indicates that this is an ongoing event. (see the section on aspect in "Conventions and Grammatical Terms" in the Additional Notes at the end of this lesson).

    This sentence displays the typical word order of Cantonese:
    Subject--Coverbial Phrase--Verb--Object:

    Saimúi hái gòujùng duhkgán syù
    younger sister at highschool study-ASP book(s)

  14. gàan

    Classifier for houses, rooms, buildings, etc. Typically, a number or specifier precedes the classifier and the noun (NU/SP+CL+Noun). The noun is optional when understood. Cantonese also allows deletion of the number "one" as in the previous sentence.

  15. Literally 'to hit' *dá* can be used as part of the phrase 'to make a telephone call.' *Dá* is sometimes used as part of expressions that indicate that an action is initiated: *dáhòi syù* 'to open a book,' *dáhòi dāng* 'to turn on a light,' etc.

  16. mahnhah,

    A common way in Cantonese to express doing something more casually is by the structure verb+*háh*, where *háh* literally means 'a little.' Another way to express the same idea in Cantonese is with the following structure: verb+yāt+verb where *yāt* is literally 'one.'

  17. Màhfàahn

    Literally meaning ' to trouble,' *máhfàahn* is used here in its conventional sense of thanking and acknowledging a person's efforts on your behalf.

  18. góng béi néih tèng

    This is a common way to express 'to tell somebody something,' (literally, 'say give you to listen' ). There are variations of this structure, such as *góng béi néih jì* (literally, 'say give you know').

  19. m̀hgòisaai

    The suffix *saai* 'completely' is added to *m̀hgòi* 'thank you' (literally, 'should not') to intensify the meaning. Cantonese has two basic words for thank you. *M̀hgòi* is typically used to express thanks for doing something on one's behalf (hence its literal meaning) . *Dòjeh* (lit. much thanks) is usually used when a gift is given but can be used to strongly thank someone for a favor as well.

  20. Conventions and Grammatical Terms

  21. Particles

  22. Family Relationships

  23. Place Names

  24. Photo - Children

  25. Photo - Son and Mom

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Cantonese: Word View, click below to listen
Lesson 2: Gàatìhng Sìhngyùhn


(Chàhn Gihtmìhng tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih giujó yéh sihk, chóh hái chāantói bihn, yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Chàhn: Ōn-Néih, hái Jùnggwok gwaan m̀hgwaan a?
Lòh: Gwodākheui.
Chàhn: Gwa m̀hgwajyuh ūkkéi a?
Lòh: Gwajyuh a. Dahkbiht gwajyuh bàhbà, màhmà.
Chàhn: Néihdeih ūkkéi yáuh géidògo yàhn a?
Lòh: Ngóh ūkkéi yáuh ńghgo yàhn: Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?
Lòh: M̀hhaih. Kéuihdeih dōu hái Méihgwok. Bàhbà, màhmà hái Dākjàu, sailóu hái Náuyeuk, gàjé hái Gàjàu.
Chàhn: A-yèh, a-màh ?
Lòh: Kéuihdeih tùhng Ngóh a-sūk, a-sám yātchàih, jyuh hái Faatgwokge Bàlàih.
Chàhn: Néihge pàhngyáuh Làhm Yèuhngjí yáuhmóuh hìngdaih jímúih ga?
Lòh: Kéuih Yáuh yatgo gòhgō, tùhng léuhnggo mùihmúi.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih jouh mātyéh ?
Lòh: Gòhgō haih gùngchìhngsì, léuhnggo mùihmúi haih hohksàang. Daaihmúi hái
Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn, Saimúi juhng duhkgán gōujùng.
Chàhn: Ah, Géi hóu ā.
Lòh: Haih la, Làhm Yèuhngjí séung jòu gàan fóng, a-Mìhng, néih m̀hjì
bīndouh yáuh fóng chēutjòu a?
Chàhn: Fuhgahn yáuh yātgàan fóng yiu chēutjòu. Ngóh dihnwá
mahnhah, hóu m̀hhóu?
Lòh: Màhfàahn néih le.
Chàhn: M̀hwúih màhfàahn. Ngóh tìngyaht góng béi néih tèng, hóu ma?
Lòh: Hóu a, m̀hgòisaai.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Family Relationships
Place Names | Numbers | Dates | Photo - Children | Photo - Son and Mom ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

Cantonese: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lesson 2: Gàatìhng Sìhngyùhn


(Chàhn Gihtmìhng tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih giujó dī yéh sihk, chóh hái chāantói bihn, yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Chàhn: Ōn-Néih, hái Jùnggwok gwaan m̀hgwaan a?
Lòh: Gwodākheui.
Chàhn: Gwa m̀hgwajyuh ūkkéi a?
Lòh: Gwajyuh a. Dahkbiht gwajyuh bàhbà, màhmà.
Chàhn: Néihdeih ūkkéi yáuh géidògo yàhn a?
Lòh: Ngóh ūkkéi yáuh ńghgo yàhn: Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?
Lòh: M̀hhaih. Kéuihdeih dōu hái Méihgwok. Bàhbà, màhmà hái Dākjàu, sailóu hái Náuyeuk, gàjé hái Gàjàu.
Chàhn: A-yèh, a-màh nē?
Lòh: Kéuihdeih tùhng Ngóh a-sūk, a-sám yātchàih, jyuh hái Faatgwokge Bàlàih.
Chàhn: Néihge pàhngyáuh Làhm Yèuhngjí yáuhmóuh hìngdaih jímúih ga?
Lòh: Kéuih Yáuh yatgo gòhgō, tùhng léuhnggo mùihmúi.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih jouh mātyéh gā?
Lòh: Gòhgō haih gùngchìhngsì, léuhnggo mùihmúi haih hohksàang. Daaihmúi hái Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn, Saimúi juhng duhkgán gōujùng.
Chàhn: Ah, Géi hóu ā.
Lòh: Haih la, Làhm Yèuhngjí séung jòu gàan fóng, a-Mìhng, néih jì m̀hjì bīndouh yáuh fóng chēutjòu a?
Chàhn: Fuhgahn yáuh yātgàan fóng yiu chēutjòu. Ngóh dá dihnwá mahnhah, hóu m̀hhóu?
Lòh: Màhfàahn néih le.
Chàhn: M̀hwúih màhfàahn. Ngóh tìngyaht góng béi néih tèng, hóu ma?
Lòh: Hóu a, m̀hgòisaai.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Family Relationships
Place Names | Numbers | Dates | Photo - Children | Photo - Son and Mom ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

American English: Word View, click below to listen
Lesson 2: Gàatìhng Sìhngyùhn


(Chàhn Gihtmìhng tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih giujó yéh sihk, chóh hái chāantói bihn, yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Chàhn: Ōn-Néih, hái Jùnggwok gwaan m̀hgwaan a?
Lòh: Gwodākheui.
Chàhn: Gwa m̀hgwajyuh ūkkéi a?
Lòh: Gwajyuh a. Dahkbiht gwajyuh bàhbà, màhmà.
Chàhn: Néihdeih ūkkéi yáuh géidògo yàhn a?
Lòh: Ngóh ūkkéi yáuh ńghgo yàhn: Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?
Lòh: M̀hhaih. Kéuihdeih dōu hái Méihgwok. Bàhbà, màhmà hái Dākjàu, sailóu hái Náuyeuk, gàjé hái Gàjàu.
Chàhn: A-yèh, a-màh ?
Lòh: Kéuihdeih tùhng Ngóh a-sūk, a-sám yātchàih, jyuh hái Faatgwokge Bàlàih.
Chàhn: Néihge pàhngyáuh Làhm Yèuhngjí yáuhmóuh hìngdaih jímúih ga?
Lòh: Kéuih Yáuh yatgo gòhgō, tùhng léuhnggo mùihmúi.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih jouh mātyéh ?
Lòh: Gòhgō haih gùngchìhngsì, léuhnggo mùihmúi haih hohksàang. Daaihmúi hái
Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn, Saimúi juhng duhkgán gōujùng.
Chàhn: Ah, Géi hóu ā.
Lòh: Haih la, Làhm Yèuhngjí séung jòu gàan fóng, a-Mìhng, néih m̀hjì
bīndouh yáuh fóng chēutjòu a?
Chàhn: Fuhgahn yáuh yātgàan fóng yiu chēutjòu. Ngóh dihnwá
mahnhah, hóu m̀hhóu?
Lòh: Màhfàahn néih le.
Chàhn: M̀hwúih màhfàahn. Ngóh tìngyaht góng béi néih tèng, hóu ma?
Lòh: Hóu a, m̀hgòisaai.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Family Relationships
Place Names | Numbers | Dates | Photo - Children | Photo - Son and Mom ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

American English: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lesson 2: Gàatìhng Sìhngyùhn


(Chàhn Gihtmìhng tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih giujó dī yéh sihk, chóh hái chāantói bihn, yātbihn sihkfaahn yātbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Chàhn: Ōn-Néih, hái Jùnggwok gwaan m̀hgwaan a?
Lòh: Gwodākheui.
Chàhn: Gwa m̀hgwajyuh ūkkéi a?
Lòh: Gwajyuh a. Dahkbiht gwajyuh bàhbà, màhmà.
Chàhn: Néihdeih ūkkéi yáuh géidògo yàhn a?
Lòh: Ngóh ūkkéi yáuh ńghgo yàhn: Bàhbà, màhmà, gàjé, sailóu tùhng ngóh.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih dōu hái Faatgwok àh?
Lòh: M̀hhaih. Kéuihdeih dōu hái Méihgwok. Bàhbà, màhmà hái Dākjàu, sailóu hái Náuyeuk, gàjé hái Gàjàu.
Chàhn: A-yèh, a-màh nē?
Lòh: Kéuihdeih tùhng Ngóh a-sūk, a-sám yātchàih, jyuh hái Faatgwokge Bàlàih.
Chàhn: Néihge pàhngyáuh Làhm Yèuhngjí yáuhmóuh hìngdaih jímúih ga?
Lòh: Kéuih Yáuh yatgo gòhgō, tùhng léuhnggo mùihmúi.
Chàhn: Kéuihdeih jouh mātyéh gā?
Lòh: Gòhgō haih gùngchìhngsì, léuhnggo mùihmúi haih hohksàang. Daaihmúi hái Dùnggìng Daaihhohk duhk Yìngmàhn, Saimúi juhng duhkgán gōujùng.
Chàhn: Ah, Géi hóu ā.
Lòh: Haih la, Làhm Yèuhngjí séung jòu gàan fóng, a-Mìhng, néih jì m̀hjì bīndouh yáuh fóng chēutjòu a?
Chàhn: Fuhgahn yáuh yātgàan fóng yiu chēutjòu. Ngóh dá dihnwá mahnhah, hóu m̀hhóu?
Lòh: Màhfàahn néih le.
Chàhn: M̀hwúih màhfàahn. Ngóh tìngyaht góng béi néih tèng, hóu ma?
Lòh: Hóu a, m̀hgòisaai.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Family Relationships
Place Names | Numbers | Dates | Photo - Children | Photo - Son and Mom ]


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