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As you know, the case of Ukrainian nouns is determined by their function in the sentence. Тhe Locative case is often used to indicate a location (place) of an object or an action.
Sometimes this case is also called the Prepositional case, because nouns (or pronouns) in this case are always used with the prepositions "у/в" or "на".
The Locative case answers the question "Де?" (Where?)

Most singular nouns form the Locative case by adding the ending "-і" to the stem. Masculine and neuter nouns ending with suffixes "к" (like "ок", "ик", "ко" ) form the Locative with the ending "-у".
місто - у місті
університет - в університеті
вікно - на вікні
стіл - на столі
будинок - у будинку
ліжко - на ліжку
словник - у словнику

As you can see, some Ukrainian words in the Locative case have a vowel alternation. "і" (like "стіл") becomes "о" (like "на столі") when the following consonant ("л" in this case) is itself followed by a vowel ("і" to form the Locative). Наприклад:
Львів - у Львові, Чернігів - у Чернігові
Харків - у Харкові, Київ - у Києві.

In some other nouns, the vowel "o" preceding the final consonant may be dropped in forming the Locative. Наприклад:
будинок - у будинку, день - у дні
гуртожиток - у гуртожитку.

Ukrainian nouns with stems ending in the consonants "к", "г" ,"х" change these to "ц", "з" "с" respectively before adding the Locative case ending. Наприклад:
бібліотеКа - у бібліотеЦі
книГа - у книЗі
поверХ - на поверСі

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