Language Canvas Course Home   Beginning Turkish: Grammar 7

7.1. A pronoun is a word that replaces a proper name or common noun, or
refers to a person, object, or idea designated by a noun. Turkish has
personal, demonstrative, interrogative, reflexive, and indefinite
pronouns. In Turkish pronouns can be inflected.
7.1.1. Personal pronouns:
ben I biz we
sen you siz you
o he, she, it onlar they Inflection of personal pronouns
ben 'I' sen 'you' [sing.]
Nominative: ben 'I' sen 'you'
Accusative: beni 'me' seni 'you' [acc.]
Gentive: benim 'my' senin 'your'
Dative: bana 'to me' sana 'to you'
Ablative: benden 'from me' senden 'from you'
Locative bende 'in me' sende 'in you'

biz 'we' siz 'you' [plur.]
Nominative: biz 'we' siz 'you'
Accusative: bizi 'us' sizi 'you' [acc.]
Gentive: bizim 'our' sizin 'your'
Dative: bize 'to us' size 'to you'
Ablative: bizden 'from us' sizden 'from you'
Locative bizde 'in us' sizde 'in you'

o 'he' onlar 'they'
Nominative: o 'he' onlar 'they'
Accusative: onu 'him' onları 'their'
Gentive: onun 'his' onların 'them'
Dative: ona 'to him' onlara 'to them'
Ablative: ondan 'from him' onlardan 'from them'
Locative onda 'in him' onlarda 'in them'
7.1.2. Demonstrative pronouns
In relationship to a reference point, Turkish distinguishes between three relative distance segments: this here, further away than this, and far from here. The following demonstrative pronouns are used to refer to these distances:
bu 'this' bunlar 'these'
şu 'that' şunlar 'those [here]'
o 'that' onlar 'those [there]' Inflection of demonstrative pronouns:
bu 'this' şu 'this'
Nominative: bu 'this' şu 'this'
Accusative: bunu 'this [acc.]' şunu 'this' [acc.]
Gentive: bunun 'of this' şunun 'of this'
Dative: buna 'to this' şuna 'to this'
Ablative: bundan 'from this' şundan 'from this'
Locative bunda 'in this' şunda 'in this'
o 'that'
Nominative: o 'that'
Accusative: onu 'that [acc.]'
Gentive: onun 'of that'
Dative: ona 'to that'
Ablative: ondan 'from that'
Locative onda 'in that'

bunlar 'these' şunlar 'those'
Nominative: bunlar 'these' şunlar 'those'
Accusative: bunları 'these [acc.]' şunları 'those' [acc.]
Gentive: bunların 'of these' şunların 'of those'
Dative: bunlara 'to these' şunlara 'to those
Ablative: bunlardan 'from these' şunlardan 'from those'
Locative bunlarda 'in these' şunlarda 'in those'

onlar 'those'
Nominative: onlar 'those'
Accusative: onları 'those' [acc.]
Gentive: onların 'of those'
Dative: onlara 'to those'
Ablative: onlardan 'from those'
Locative: onlarda 'in those' Demonstrative adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives are demonstrative pronouns in adjectival use. They occur together with nouns which they specify.
bu 'this' bu giriş 'this entrance'
şu 'that' şu ev 'that house'
o 'that' o silgi 'that windshield wiper'

Note: Demonstrative adjectives have no plural forms.
bu kitap 'this book'
bu kitaplar 'these books' Adverbial forms of demonstrative pronouns used to express location:
burada 'here'
şurada 'there'
orada 'over there'
7.1.3. Interrogative pronouns:
kim 'who?' - to ask about people
ne 'what?' - to ask about other than people
nerede 'where?' - to ask about location
nereden 'from where?'
kimin 'whose?'
neyin 'of what?'
kaç 'how much?'
niçin 'why'
neden 'why? for what reason?'
ne zaman 'when?'
kimin 'whose?'
nasıl 'how?'
kaç 'how much?'
ne kadar 'how much?'
hangi 'which?'
hangisi 'which of them?'
ne renk 'of what color?'
nereli 'from where'
Bu kim? 'Who is this?'
Bu Erol. 'This is Erol.'
Bu ne? 'What is this?'
Bu anahtar. 'This is the key.'
Öğretmen nerede? 'Where is the teacher?'
Kitap nerede? 'Where is the book?'
Niçin geldin? 'Why did you come?'
Neden intihar etti? 'Why did he commit suicide?'
Ne zaman eve döndü? 'When did he return home?'
Bu kimin kalemi? 'Whose is this pencil?'
Bu kimin şapkası? 'Whose is this hat?'
Bu kimin arabası? 'Whose is this car?'
Hangisini alıyorsun? 'Which one do you take?
Bunu alıyorum. 'I take this one.'
Nerelisiniz? 'Where are you from?' Inflection of interrogative pronouns:
kim 'who' ne 'what'
Nominative: kim 'who' ne 'what'
Accusative: kimi 'whom' neyi 'what' [acc.]
Gentive: kimin 'whose' neyin ~ nenin 'of what'
Dative: kime 'to whom' niye ~ neye 'to what'
Ablative: kimden 'from whom' neden 'why'
Locative kimde 'in/with/on whom' -

kim 'who' neler 'what'
Nominative: kimler 'who' neler 'what'
Accusative: kimleri 'whom' neleri 'what' [acc.]
Gentive: kimlerin 'whose' nelerin 'of what'
Dative: kimlere 'to whom' nelere 'to what'
Ablative: kimlerden 'from whom' nelerden 'why'
Locative kimlerde 'in/with/on whom' -

nere 'what place'
Nominative: nere 'what place'
Accusative: nereyi 'what place [acc.]'
Gentive: nerenin 'of what place'
Dative: nereye 'to what place, where to'
Ablative: nereden 'where from'
Locative nerede 'where'

7.1.4. Reflexive pronouns The word kendi 'self' together with possessive suffixes is used as a reflexive pronoun:
Singular Plural
lst kendim 'myself' 1st kendimiz 'ourselves'
2d kendin 'yourself' 2nd kendiniz 'yourselves'
3d kendi 'himself' 3d kendileri 'themselves'
kendisi 'himself' Inflection of reflexive pronouns
The word kendi + a possessive suffix can be inflected for cases:
kendim 'myself' kendin 'yourself' [sing.]
Nominative: kendim 'myself' kendin 'yourself'
Accusative: kendimi 'myself [acc.]' kendini 'yourself' [acc.]
Gentive: kendimin 'of myself' kendinin 'of yourself'
Dative: kendime 'to myself' kendine 'to yourself'
Ablative: kendimden 'from myself' kendinden 'from yourself'
Locative kendimde 'in myself' kendinde 'in yourself'

kendi 'himself' kendisi 'himself'
Nominative: kendi 'himself' kendisi 'himself'
Accusative: kendini 'himself [acc.]' kendisini 'himself' [acc.]
Gentive: kendinin 'of himself' kendisinin 'of himself'
Dative: kendine 'to himself' kendisine 'to himself'
Ablative: kendinden 'from himself' kendisinden 'from himself'
Locative kendinde 'in himself' kendisinde 'in himself'

kendimiz 'ourselves' kendiniz 'yourselves' [plur.]
Nom.: kendimiz 'ourselves' kendiniz 'yourselves'
Acc.: kendimizi 'ourselves [acc.]' kendinizi 'yourselves' [acc.]
Gen.: kendimizin 'of ourselves' kendinizin 'of yourselves'
Dat.: kendimize 'to ourselves' kendinize 'to yourselves'
Abl.: kendimizden 'from ourselves' kendinizden 'from yourselves'
Loc.: kendimizde 'in ourselves' kendinizde 'in yourselves'

kendileri 'themselves'
Nom.: kendileri 'themselves'
Acc.: kendilerini 'themselves [acc.]'
Gen.: kendilerinin 'of themselves'
Dat.: kendilerine 'to themselves'
Abl.: kendilerinden 'from themselves'
Loc.: kendilerinde 'in themselves'
7.1.5. Indefinite pronouns Inflection of indefinite pronouns
biri 'someone' çoğu 'most'
Nominative: biri 'someone' çoğu 'most'
Accusative: birini 'someone [acc.]' çoğunu 'most' [acc.]
Genitive: birinin 'of someone' çoğunun 'of most'
Dative: birine 'to someone' çoğuna 'to most'
Ablative: birinden 'from someone' çoğundan 'from most'
Locative birinde 'in someone' çoğunda 'in most'

hepsi 'all' bazısı 'some'
Nominative: hepsi 'all' bazısı 'some'
Accusative: hepsini 'all' [acc.]' bazısını 'some [acc.]'
Genitive: hepsinin 'of all' bazısının 'of some'
Dative: hepsine 'to all' bazısına 'to some'
Ablative: hepsinden 'from all' bazısından 'from some'
Locative hepsinde 'in all' bazısında 'in some

öbürü 'the other'
Nominative: öbürü 'the other'
Accusative: öbürünü 'the other' [acc.]'
Gentive: öbürünün 'of the other'
Dative: öbürüne 'to the other'
Ablative: öbüründen 'from the other'
Locative öbüründe 'in the other'

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