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GR 4. NOUNS
4.1. Turkish Nouns
A noun is a word that names or designates a person, a living being, an object, a place, a state, an idea, a notion, an abstraction, and the like. Turkish distinguishes proper nouns [Anıtkabır, Bakirköy, Sivas], and common nouns [masa 'table,' günah 'sin,' kedi 'cat'].
4.2. Structure of Turkish Nouns
By their structure, Turkish nouns can be divided into four groups: simple [gece 'night'], derivative [yakınlık 'closeness'], compound [anayön 'cardinal point'], phrasal [gecekondu 'shanty'], and possessive [başsağlığı 'condolence'; maden suyu 'mineral water'].
4.2.1.The elements of most possessive compound nouns are spelled separately. More lexicalized possessive compounds are writen as one word. E.g.,
Türkçe öğretmeni 'Turkish teacher'
göz doktoru 'eye doctor'
bayan ayakkabısı 'women's shoes'
yolcu uçağı 'passenger plane'
çay bardağı 'tea cup'
Türk parası 'Turkish money'
haftasonu 'weekend'
başsağlığı 'condolence'
4.1.1. Diminutive nouns
Diminutive nouns are formed by the following diminutive suffixes:
(a) -cik, -cık, -cük, -cuk:
dükkancık 'little shop'
babacık 'daddy'
Note in most words of this type the final -k drops when the suffix -cik is added:
köpekcik 'little dog'
bebecik 'little baby'
(b) -ceğiz, -cağız:
adamcağız 'the poor man'
köyceğiz 'little village'
Note: Monosyllabic words with final -k preserve this consonant when diminutive suffixes are applied to them:
okçağız 'little arrow'
4.3. Plural Nouns
The plural in Turkish is indicated by -lar after nouns with back vowels or -ler after nouns with front vowels [see 2.3.2.]. E.g.,
bağ 'vinyard' bağlar 'vinyards'
at 'horse' atlar 'horses'
konuk 'guest' konuklar 'guests'
haber 'news' haberler 'news'
duygu 'feeling' duygular 'feelings'
ördek 'duck' ördekler 'ducks'
4.3.1. Plural added to personal names
Added to personal names the plural refers to the entire family. E.g.,
Tülinler 'Tülin and her family'
4.4. Inflection of nouns
4.4.1. Nouns can be inflected for cases and for possessors.
4.4.2. Inflection for cases
A case form indicates the function [subject, direct object, adverbial of place, etc.] of the noun in context [sentence or natural setting].
Turkish has six cases:
4.4.2.1. Nominative Case
The nominative case has no case marker. It is the case of the subject, nominal predicate, unspecified direct object, predicative object, counting words [numeratives], and first elements of possessive compounds. E.g.,
Anne geldi. 'Mother came.'
Erol mühendis. 'Erol is an engineer.'
Komşu sigara içmez. 'The neighbor does not smoke.'
Seni annem sandım. 'I thought you were my mother.'
Bir baş öküz. 'One head of cattle.'
4.4.2.2. Accusative Case
The marker of the accusative case is i, ı, ü, u. This is the case of the definite direct object. E.g.,
Öğretmeni gördüm. 'I saw the teacher.'
Gülü buldum. 'I found the rose.'
4.4.2.3. Genitive Case
The marker of the genitive case is: in, ın, ün, un [after a consonant], nin, nın, nün, nun [after a vowel]. This is the case of the owner or possessor. E.g.,
Öğretmenin kitabı. 'The teacher's book.'
Annenin evi. 'The mother's house'.
Öküzün toynağı. 'The hoof of the ox.'
4.4.2.4. Dative Case
The marker of the dative case is e, a; after a vowel it is ye, ya. This is the case with indirect objects. E.g.,
Ayşe eve geldi. 'Ayşe came home [lit. 'to the house'].'
Çiğdem odaya girdi. 'Çiğdem went into the room.'
4.4.2.4.1. Many Turkish verbs govern the dative case:
sevin- 'to be happy about something'
şaşır- 'to be confused'
çarp- 'to collide with'
4.4.2.5. Ablative Case
The marker of the ablative case is den, dan; after voiceless consonants, tan, ten. This is the case with starting points or origins. E.g.,
Öğrenci okuldan çıktı. 'The teacher left the school.'
Sabahtan akşama kadar çalıştı. 'He worked from morning to evening.'
4.4.2.6. Locative Case
The marker of the locative case is de, da; after voiceless consonants, te, ta. This is the case with places or points in time. E.g.,
Annem evde. 'My mother is at home.'
Erol Sivas'ta çalışıyor. 'Erol works in Sivas.'
4.3.3. Paradigms of Nominal Inflection
Consonantal stem: ev 'house'
Singular
Nominative: ev 'house'
Accusative: evi 'house [acc.]'
Genitive: evin 'of the house'
Dative: eve 'to the house'
Ablative: evden 'from the house'
Locative: evde 'in the house'
Plural
Nominative: evler 'houses'
Accusative: evleri 'houses [acc.]
Genitive: evlerin 'of the houses'
Dative: evlere 'to the houses'
Ablative: evlerden 'from the houses'
Locative: evlerde 'in the houses'

Vowel stem: gece 'night'
Singular
Nominative: gece 'night'
Accusative: geceyi 'night [acc.]'
Genitive: gecenin 'of the night'
Dative: geceye 'to the night'
Ablative: geceden 'from the night'
Locative: gecede 'in the night'
Plural
Nominative: geceler 'nights'
Accusative: geceleri 'nights [acc.]
Genitive: gecelerin 'of the nights'
Dative: gecelere 'to the nights'
Ablative: gecelerden 'from the nights'
Locative: gecelerde 'in the nights'
4.4.3. Inflection for possession
4.4.3.1. In Turkish a noun can indicate that the object named by it is owned, occupied, or possessed. You can also reveal the number [singular or plural] and the person [first, second or third] of the possessor. In Turkish you can also name the possessor and attach it to the possessed object through a case form [genitive case] or simply by juxtaposition.
4.4.3.2. Possessive suffixes
There are two sets of possessive suffixes: one with an initial vowel and one with an initial consonant. The former is added to consonantal stems, the latter to vowel stems. The vowels in either set conform to the rules of vowel harmony.
4.4.3.3. Paradigms of inflection for possession:
4.4.3.3.1. Strong nouns:
ev 'house' ad 'name'
Singular
1st person ev-im 'my house' ad-ım 'my name'
2d person ev-in 'your house' ad-ın 'your name'
3d person ev-i 'his house' ad-ı 'his name'
Plural
1st person ev-imiz 'our house' ad-ımız 'our name'
2d person ev-iniz 'your house' ad-ınız 'your name'
3d person ev-leri 'their house' ad-ları 'their name'

anne 'mother' baba 'father'
Singular
1st person anne-m 'my mother' baba-m 'my father'
2d person anne-n 'your mother' baba-n 'your father'
3d person anne-si 'his mother' baba-sı 'his father'
Plural
1st person anne-miz 'our mother' baba-mız 'our father'
2d person anne-niz 'your mother' baba-nız 'your father'
3d person anne-leri 'their mother' baba-ları 'their father'
4.4.3.3.2. Weak nouns
4.4.3.3.2. (a) Group I.
oğul 'son' ağız 'mouth'
Singular
1st person oğl-um 'my son' ağz-ım 'my mouth'
2d person oğl-un 'your son' ağzı-n 'your mouth'
3d person oğl-u 'his son' ağz-ı 'his mouth
Plural
1st person oğl-umuz 'our son' ağz-ımız 'our mouth'
2d person oğl-unuz 'your son' ağz-ınız 'your mouth'
3d person oğul-ları 'their son' ağız-ları 'their mouth'
4.4.3.3.2. (b) Group II.
kitap 'book' güç 'strength'
Singular
1st person kitab-ım 'my book' güc-üm 'my strength'
2d person kitab-ın 'your book' güc-ün 'your strength'
3d person kitab-ı 'his book' güc-ü 'his strength'
Plural
1st person kitabımız 'our book' güc-ümüz 'our strength'
2d person kitabınız 'your book' gücünüz 'your strength'
3d person kitap-ları 'their book' güç-leri 'their strength'
4.4.3.3.3. (c) Group III.
saat 'hour' hal 'state'
Singular
1st person saat-im 'my hour' hal-im 'my state'
2d person saat-in 'your hour' hal-in 'your state'
3d person saat-i 'his hour' hal-i 'his state'
Plural
1st person saat-imiz 'our hour' hal-imiz 'our state'
2d person saat-iniz 'your hour' hal-iniz 'your state'
3d person saat-leri 'their hour' hal-leri 'their state'
4.4.3.3.4. (d) Group IV.
cami 'mosque' mevzu 'topic'
Singular
1st person cami-im 'my mosque' mevzu-um 'my topic'
2d person cami-in 'your mosque' mevzu-un 'your topic'
3d person cami-i 'his mosque' mevzu-u 'his topic'
Plural
1st person cami-imiz 'our mosque' mevzu-umuz 'our topic'
2d person cami-iniz 'your mosque' mevzu-unuz 'your topic'
3d person cami-leri 'their mosque' mevzu-ları 'their topic'

Note: Nouns in this group are treated as vowel stems in more casual speech style and are inflected as such.
4.4.3.3.5. (e) Group V.
hak 'right'
Singular
1st person hakk-ım 'my right'
2d person hakk-ın 'your right'
3d person hakk-ı 'his right'
Plural
1st person hakk-ımız 'our right'
2d person hakk-ınız 'your right'
3d person hak-ları 'their right'
4.4.3.3.6. (f) Group VI.
yeis 'despair' nevi 'sort'
Singular
1st person ye's-im 'my despair' nev'-im 'my sort'
2d person ye's-in 'your despair' nev'-in 'your sort'
3d person ye's-i 'his despair' nev'-i 'his sort'
Plural
1st person ye's-imiz 'our despair' nev'-imiz 'our sort'
2d person ye's-iniz 'your despair' nev'-iniz 'your sort'
3d person ye'is-leri 'their despair' nevi-leri 'their sort'
4.4.3.3.7. (f) Group VI.
vakit 'time' şehir 'city'
Singular
1st person vakt-im 'my timer' şehr-im 'my city'
2d person vakt-in 'your time' şehr-in 'your city'
3d person vakt-i 'his time' şehr-i 'his city'
Plural
1st person vakt-imiz 'our time' şehr-imiz 'our city'
2d person vakt-iniz 'your time' şehr-iniz 'your city'
3d person vakit-leri 'their time' şehir-leri 'their city'


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