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Lição1 Lição
PHONETICS: the consonant "C" and the cedilha "Ç"

The consonant "C" is pronounced like the 'c' in 'candy':
- Before the vowels "A," "O," and "U."
Ex.: casa; coisa cuca

The consonant "C" has the sound of 's':
- Before the vowels "E"and "I"
Ex.: cento cinto


Before the vowels "A," "O," and "U," the cedilha (Ç) gives "C" the sound of 's':
Ex.: caça moço cupuaçu
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um (1): NO2 NO
PREPOSITIONS: NO, NA, NOS, NAS

NO means 'IN+THE' [masc] or 'AT+THE' [masc] or 'ON+THE' [masc].
Similarly,
NA means 'IN+THE' [fem] or 'AT+THE' [fem] or 'ON+THE' [fem].

Thus, in this lesson
we see NO aeroporto (o aeroporto), At the airport
and NA cidade (a cidade), In the city
_______________________________________________________________________________

For the masculine plural, there is NOS Ex.: nos aeroportos
And for the feminine plural, there is NAS Ex.: nas cidades

_______________________________________________________________________________
OTHER EXAMPLES:

O livro está NA mesa 'the book is ON THE table'
Os livros estão NAS caixas 'the books are IN THE boxes'
Ele está NO cinema 'he is AT THE movies'
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AEROPORTO3 AEROPORTO

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Play Video

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"Informamos a chegada do avião da Varig4 Varig
BRAZILIAN THINGS: Airlines

VARIG is one of the main airline companies in Brazil. The other two main companies are VASP and TRANSBRASIL.
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, vôo 123, procedente de Chicago. Senhores passageiros sejam bem-vindos ao Recife5 Recife
BRAZILIAN CITIES: Recife

Recife is the capital of the state of Pernambuco, located on the northeast coast of Brazil.
Its population is close to 2 million people.
Recife is famous for its beautiful beaches, historical cities, and rich culture.

TEST YOURSELF:
Look at the map of Brazil in "THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE" and locate RECIFE.
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!"
...........................................................................................................
15 minutos mais tarde, Pedrinho chega ao setor de "Desembarque Internacional" do aeroporto. Ele acena para uma6 uma
The INDEFINITE ARTICLES (a, an)

UM - when the noun is masculine singular Ex.: um livro; um carro
UMA - when the noun is feminine singular Ex.: uma moça; uma casa.

UNS - when the noun is masculine plural Ex.: uns livros; uns carros.
UMAS - when the noun is feminine plural Ex.: umas moças; umas casas.

Note: UNS and UMAS are equivalent to SOME in English.
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moça.

Pedrinho7 Pedrinho
NAMES AND NICKNAMES

'Pedrinho' is the nickname for 'Pedro.'
Other common Brazilian names are:
For males: Antonio, José, Alberto, Fábio, João, Lucas, Marcos, Marcelo, Fernando, Jorge, Nelson.
For females: Tereza, Maria, Maria de Lourdes, Severina, Luísa, Vera, Inês, Joana, Celeste, Carolina.
______________________________________________________________________________

Many nicknames are made by the addition of a suffix to the name:
-INHO or -ZINHO (for males); and -INHA or -ZINHA (for females).
Example: João -> Joãozinho; Vera -> Verinha
(which literally means: 'little João,' 'little Vera')
However, when we call João as Joãozinho we do not necessarily mean João is a little kid. He may or may not be one. The suffix is mainly used to show affection.
______________________________________________________________________________

NOTE: when you add -INHO or -INHA to a name which ends in a vowel, like Vera (above), this vowel may be dropped.
Thus, Tereza->Terezinha (drop "a"); Pedro->Pedrinho (drop "o")
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: Helen, aqui!
Moça: O quê?8 O quê?
ASKING FOR CLARIFICATION

"O Quê?" 'What?' 'Pardon?'
This is one way to show that you did not hear or did not understand something.

Another common way: "Como?" 'How's that?'

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P: Desculpe9 Desculpe
DRAWING SOMEONE'S ATTENTION

"Desculpe," 'excuse me,' can be used in several ways. One way is:

* To draw someone's attention: "Desculpe, você é a Helen?"

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, você10 você
The PERSONAL PRONOUNS

EU (I)
(Tu) (you, sing.) - used in specific geographical areas in Brazil.
VOCÊ (you, sing.)
ELE / ELA (he / she)

NÓS (we)
(Vós) (you, pl.) - used in prayers, sermons, and very formal speeches.
VOCÊS (you, pl.)
ELES / ELAS (they)

There is no personal pronoun "IT" in Portuguese (we will see more about that later).
______________________________________________________________________________

ATTENTION: although referring to the SECOND person (you), the forms
VOCÊ and VOCÊS take the VERB in the THIRD person
(the same verb forms of "he/she" and "they").
Observe the present tense of verb SER (to be) below:
EU sou NÓS somos
VOCÊ é VOCÊS são
ELE/ELA é ELES/ELAS são
_____________________________________________________________________________

NOTE: due to limited use, the forms "TU" and "VÓS" will not be used in this course.

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é11 é
TO BE (SER)

The English verb TO BE can be translated by two verbs in Portuguese: SER and ESTAR.
Now you will learn about SER and later you will learn about ESTAR and the differences between the two verbs.
_______________________________________________________________________________
Verb SER, 'to be' (irregular):
PRESENT TENSE
Eu sou 'I am'
Você é 'You are'
Ele / Ela é 'He / She is'

Nós somos 'We are'
Vocês são 'You are'
Eles / Elas são 'They are'
_______________________________________________________________________________
Examples: eu sou morena; ele é Paulo; ela é americana
nós somos brasileiros; elas são bonitas; eles são altos.

NOTE: as you saw in "THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE," one of the most important cities in Brazil is São Paulo. The word "são" in São Paulo means "saint" (as in St. Paul) and is NOT related in any way to the word "são" meaning 'are.'
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a12 a
ARTIGOS DEFINIDOS, Definite Articles
GÊNERO e NÚMERO, Gender and Number of nouns

In English there is only one Definite Article (THE) used with all nouns.

In Portuguese there are four Definite Articles. The articles match the noun's GENDER (either masculine or feminine) and NUMBER (either singular or plural).

DEFINITE ARTICLES

O - the: masculine, singular Ex.: o inferno; o carro
A - the: feminine, singular Ex.: a cidade; a mala
OS - the: masculine, plural Ex.: os carros; os infernos
AS - the: feminine, plural Ex.: as malas; as cidades
______________________________________________________________________________
GENDER
In Portuguese all nouns are either masculine or feminine. There is no explanation why "the pen" is feminine (a caneta) and "the book" is masculine (o livro).

* As a general rule, nouns ending in -A are feminine and nouns ending in -O are masculine.
Ex.: o moço -> a moça o menino -> a menina

* Words ending in -OR or -ÊS (masc.) add A (fem.)
Ex.: o inglês -> a inglesa o francês -> a francesa o senhor -> a senhora

* In some cases different words are used.
Ex.: o pai -> a mãe o homem -> a mulher

* The best way to learn is to memorize the article together with the noun.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_
Note: In Portuguese it is common to use the article before PERSONAL NAMES:
Ex: O José; a Sandra; o Roberto; a Ana.

_______________
TEST YOURSELF: Look at the text and find a personal name preceded by an article.

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Helen?
M: Não.
P: Ah... Desculpe13 Desculpe
ASKING TO BE EXCUSED

We already learned that "desculpe" can be used to attract another person's attention.
However, in this example "desculpe" is used in a different way:

* After an action you want to be excused from:
Ex.: "Ah... Desculpe." "Desculpe o atraso."

_______________
TEST YOURSELF: identify both cases of "desculpe" in the text and compare them.


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. Eu...
M: Não tem problema.
Pedrinho lembra:
P: Helen é alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha.14 alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha.
ADJETIVOS, Adjectives

Some adjectives used for PHYSICAL DESCRIPTIONS:

"alto/alta," "baixo/baixa" = tall, short
"magro/magra," "gordo/gorda" = skinny, fat
"o/a jovem," "velho/velha" = young, old

"Gordinho(a)," literally 'a little bit overweight,' is an affectionate way to say someone is not skinny.

You can describe a person by
the HAIR (o CABELO):
-cor (color) = preto (black), castanho (brown), louro (blond), grisalho (gray)
-tipo (type) = liso (straight), ondulado (wavy), encaracolado ((curly)
-tamanho (size)= curto (short), médio (medium), comprido (long).

the EYES (os OLHOS):
castanhos (brown), pretos (black), verdes (green), azuis (blue).

the SKIN (a PELE):
preta (black), morena (dark), branca (white).


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..
P: Com licença15 Com licença
More on ASKING TO BE EXCUSED

The English "excuse me" can be translated into two forms:
'desculpe' and 'com licença.'

* BOTH FORMS ARE USED TO DRAW OTHER PEOPLE'S ATTENTION:
Ex: Desculpe, você é o Renato? Com licença, você é o Renato?
______________________________________________________________________________

* BOTH FORMS ARE USED TO ASK TO BE EXCUSED, as well.
In this case, however, these expressions are used in different ways:

1) -USE "COM LICENÇA" (literally, 'with permission') BEFORE the action you want to be excused from. For instance, before leaving the table while other people are still eating.
(The answer for "COM LICENÇA" is "POIS NÃO.")

2) -USE "DESCULPE" (as 'I'm sorry') AFTER the action you want to be excused from.
For instance, when unintentionally bumping into someone.

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... Helen?
Helen: Sim! Você é o Pedro?
P: Sou. Pedro Rodrigues.
H: Muito prazer.
P: O prazer é meu16 O prazer é meu
INTRODUCING YOURSELF

People often introduce themselves (usually with a handshake) at a party, in a new classroom, or in a new neighborhood. Ex.:

At a party: In a classroom:

-Oi, sou a Renata. -Meu nome é Fábio. Como é seu nome?
-Muito prazer. Cláudio. -Tânia. Prazer.
-Prazer. -O prazer é meu.
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.
Eles apertam as mãos17 as mãos
PLURAL OF NOUNS

The general rule to form the plural of nouns:
- add an "s" to the singular word.

Ex.: moça -> moçaS mão -> mãoS carro -> carroS

- remember, the adjective agrees with the noun in relation to both gender and number (sing. or plural).

Ex.: moça bonita -> moçaS bonitaS carro pequeno -> carroS pequenoS

_______________
TEST YOURSELF: Look in the text and find two words in the plural which are different from those in the examples above.

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e Pedrinho beija18 beija
BRAZILIAN WAY: Greetings

Brazilians usually greet each other (two women, or a man and a woman) with kisses on the cheek (one on each side). Two men just shake hands and/or hug, tapping on each other's back or shoulder.
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Helen na face. Play Video

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P: Bem-vinda19 Bem-vinda
WELCOMING PEOPLE

Remember: "welcome" in Portuguese depends on who you are talking to.

If you are talking...

To one man: "BEM-VINDO" To more than one man: "BEM-VINDOS"
To one woman: "BEM-VINDA" To more than one woman: "BEM-VINDAS"

When you have both genders, use the masculine plural: "BEM-VINDOS"

_______________
TEST YOURSELF:
Did you notice the different endings in the examples above?
Find another "welcome" in the text of the lesson. To whom is it directed?
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ao Brasil20 Brasil
FONÉTICA: The consonant "L"

The consonant "L" is pronounced as in English when it comes BEFORE A VOWEL.
Ex.: lulu; falo; lá.

However, BEFORE A CONSONANT and AT THE END of the word it sounds like /u/ or /w/
Thus, the word 'Brasil' is pronounced as /braziu/.

____________
Other examples:
Before a consonant: FALTA ALGUÉM
At the end of the word: FÁCIL ANEL PAPEL BARRIL

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!
H: Obrigada!
P: Desculpe o atraso21 o atraso
BRAZILIAN WAY: O Atraso, The Delay

Brazilians are often late for their appointments, particularly social ones. For most Brazilians, 15-30 minutes delay is accepted and thus is not impolite. However, they usually explain the reason for the delay and ask to be excused.

Ex.: Desculpe o atraso. O trânsito na cidade é um inferno!

_______________
TEST YOURSELF: Who was late in the dialogue? How late?
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. O trânsito na22 na
PREPOSITIONS: NO, NA, NOS, NAS

NO means 'IN+THE' [masc] or 'AT+THE' [masc] or 'ON+THE' [masc].
Similarly,
NA means 'IN+THE' [fem] or 'AT+THE' [fem] or 'ON+THE' [fem].

Thus, in this lesson
we see NO aeroporto ('aeroporto' is masculine: o aeroporto)
and NA cidade ('cidade' is feminine: a cidade)
_______________________________________________________________________________
For masculine plural, there is NOS Ex.: nos aeroportos
And for feminine plural, there is NAS Ex.: nas cidades

_______________________________________________________________________________
OTHER EXAMPLES:

O livro está NA mesa 'the book is ON the table'
Os livros estão NAS caixas 'the books are IN the boxes'
Ele está NO cinema 'he is AT the movies'
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cidade é um23 um
The INDEFINITE ARTICLES (a, an)

UM - when the noun is masculine singular. Ex.: um livro; um carro
UMA - when the noun is feminine singular Ex.: uma moça; uma casa.

UNS - when the noun is masculine plural Ex.: uns livros; uns carros.
UMAS - when the noun is feminine plural Ex.: umas moças; umas casas.

Note: UNS and UMAS are equivalent to SOME in English.

ATTENTION: the indefinite article masc. sing. (UM) and the number one (UM) are spelled and pronounced the same way.

_______________
TEST YOURSELF: find an indefinite article fem. sing. in the text.
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inferno!
H: Não tem importância24 Não tem importância
REPLYING TO OTHER PEOPLE'S EXCUSES

When someone says "Desculpe" ('excuse me'), you can answer in various ways:

Não foi nada (literally, 'it was nothing').
Não tem problema (literally, 'there is no problem').
Não há de quê (literally, 'there is no reason for it').
Não faz mal (literally, 'it does not do any harm').
Or, as in this lesson: "Não tem importância." (literally, 'it's not important').

_______________
TEST YOURSELF Look in the text and find another case of 'desculpe' followed by one of the answers above.

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!
P: Vamos25 Vamos
Verb IR, 'to go' (irregular)

PRESENT TENSE
eu vou 'I go'
você vai 'you go'
ele / ela vai 'he / she goes'
nós vamos 'we go'
vocês vão 'you go'
eles / elas vão 'they go'
______________________________________________________________________________

The expression 'Vamos...' is equivalent to 'Let's....'
Ex.: Vamos dançar! 'Let's dance'
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levar as malas para o26 para o
PREPOSITION "PARA" + the DEFINITE ARTICLES

PARA (TO) + O (THE) Para o cinema
PARA (TO) + A (THE) Para a cidade
PARA (TO) + OS (THE) Para os teatros
PARA (TO) + AS (THE) Para as casas

"PRO" - is an informal contracted way of saying "PARA O" ('TO THE [masc]')
Ex.: Vamos para o (pro) cinema!; Vamos para o (pro) circo!

"PRA" - is an informal contracted way of saying "PARA A" ('TO THE [fem]')
Ex.: Vamos para a (pra) casa; Vamos para a (pra) cidade
_______________________________________________________________________________

The plural forms are PARA OS (informally, "pros")
and PARA AS (informally, "pras")
_______________________________________________________________________________

NOTE:
* In FORMAL written Portuguese always use "PARA O" and "PARA A"
* In INFORMAL writing you may use either form, although PARA O/A is preferred.

A current general tendency is that people use PARA O/A in informal writing but say PRO/PRA when they read it..

_______________
TEST YOURSELF: find a sentence with 'para' (fem.) in the text.
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carro.
H: Elas são muito grandes.
P: Não tem problema. Vamos para casa!
H: Ótimo.
Play Video

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The 5 vowels: a - e - i - o - u
The 7 oral vowel sounds27 The 7 oral vowel sounds
AS VOGAIS ORAIS, The oral vowels

There are 5 VOWELS in Portuguese: a - e - i - o - u
However, there are 7 "oral vowel sounds": /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/

Practice the following words:
/a/ casa, mala, fala
/é/ café, José, belo
/ê/ você, prazer, o quê?
/i/ ri, vida, Sílvia
/ó/ avó, só, pó
/ô/ avô, alô, flor

If the word has an accent, you can tell whether the vowel is open (with ') or closed (with ^ ).
Otherwise, you need to listen and learn the correct pronunciation of each word.
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: /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/


AGORA VOCÊ SABE28 AGORA VOCÊ SABE
Now you know:

HOW TO USE PORTUGUESE TO: introduce yourself; greet people; excuse yourself; reply to other people's excuses; draw someone's attention; welcome people; give physical description; ask for clarification.

PORTUGUESE GRAMMAR: gender and number of nouns; definite and indefinite articles; personal pronouns; verb 'to be' (SER); verb 'to go' (IR); expressions: Vamos... (Let's...); adjectives to describe people; prepositions: PARA O(OS), PARA A(AS), NO, NA, NOS, NAS.
New verbs: chegar; acenar; lembrar; ter; apertar; beijar.

PORTUGUESE PHONETICS: the oral vowel sounds; the consonant "l."

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'now you know' PRATIQUE MAIS29 PRATIQUE MAIS

1- COMPARE THE WAY PEOPLE DO THINGS
IN PORTUGUESE (in the lesson) AND IN YOUR LANGUAGE:
-How do you introduce yourself in your language?
-How do you draw other people's attention in your country?

2- DESCRIBING PEOPLE
a- How do you describe yourself? List four adjectives.
b- Think of other people you know (friends, relatives, etc.) and describe them also.


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'further practice'
CANTADO COM KAIA 'singing with Kaia CANTADO COM KAIA 'singing with Kaia
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'


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▲ Hide Footnotes

  1. Lição

    PHONETICS: the consonant "C" and the cedilha "Ç"

    The consonant "C" is pronounced like the 'c' in 'candy':
    - Before the vowels "A," "O," and "U."
    Ex.: casa; coisa cuca

    The consonant "C" has the sound of 's':
    - Before the vowels "E"and "I"
    Ex.: cento cinto


    Before the vowels "A," "O," and "U," the cedilha (Ç) gives "C" the sound of 's':
    Ex.: caça moço cupuaçu

  2. NO

    PREPOSITIONS: NO, NA, NOS, NAS

    NO means 'IN+THE' [masc] or 'AT+THE' [masc] or 'ON+THE' [masc].
    Similarly,
    NA means 'IN+THE' [fem] or 'AT+THE' [fem] or 'ON+THE' [fem].

    Thus, in this lesson
    we see NO aeroporto (o aeroporto), At the airport
    and NA cidade (a cidade), In the city
    _______________________________________________________________________________

    For the masculine plural, there is NOS Ex.: nos aeroportos
    And for the feminine plural, there is NAS Ex.: nas cidades

    _______________________________________________________________________________
    OTHER EXAMPLES:

    O livro está NA mesa 'the book is ON THE table'
    Os livros estão NAS caixas 'the books are IN THE boxes'
    Ele está NO cinema 'he is AT THE movies'

  3. AEROPORTO

  4. Varig

    BRAZILIAN THINGS: Airlines

    VARIG is one of the main airline companies in Brazil. The other two main companies are VASP and TRANSBRASIL.

  5. Recife

    BRAZILIAN CITIES: Recife

    Recife is the capital of the state of Pernambuco, located on the northeast coast of Brazil.
    Its population is close to 2 million people.
    Recife is famous for its beautiful beaches, historical cities, and rich culture.

    TEST YOURSELF:
    Look at the map of Brazil in "THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE" and locate RECIFE.

  6. uma

    The INDEFINITE ARTICLES (a, an)

    UM - when the noun is masculine singular Ex.: um livro; um carro
    UMA - when the noun is feminine singular Ex.: uma moça; uma casa.

    UNS - when the noun is masculine plural Ex.: uns livros; uns carros.
    UMAS - when the noun is feminine plural Ex.: umas moças; umas casas.

    Note: UNS and UMAS are equivalent to SOME in English.

  7. Pedrinho

    NAMES AND NICKNAMES

    'Pedrinho' is the nickname for 'Pedro.'
    Other common Brazilian names are:
    For males: Antonio, José, Alberto, Fábio, João, Lucas, Marcos, Marcelo, Fernando, Jorge, Nelson.
    For females: Tereza, Maria, Maria de Lourdes, Severina, Luísa, Vera, Inês, Joana, Celeste, Carolina.
    ______________________________________________________________________________

    Many nicknames are made by the addition of a suffix to the name:
    -INHO or -ZINHO (for males); and -INHA or -ZINHA (for females).
    Example: João -> Joãozinho; Vera -> Verinha
    (which literally means: 'little João,' 'little Vera')
    However, when we call João as Joãozinho we do not necessarily mean João is a little kid. He may or may not be one. The suffix is mainly used to show affection.
    ______________________________________________________________________________

    NOTE: when you add -INHO or -INHA to a name which ends in a vowel, like Vera (above), this vowel may be dropped.
    Thus, Tereza->Terezinha (drop "a"); Pedro->Pedrinho (drop "o")

  8. O quê?

    ASKING FOR CLARIFICATION

    "O Quê?" 'What?' 'Pardon?'
    This is one way to show that you did not hear or did not understand something.

    Another common way: "Como?" 'How's that?'

  9. Desculpe

    DRAWING SOMEONE'S ATTENTION

    "Desculpe," 'excuse me,' can be used in several ways. One way is:

    * To draw someone's attention: "Desculpe, você é a Helen?"

  10. você

    The PERSONAL PRONOUNS

    EU (I)
    (Tu) (you, sing.) - used in specific geographical areas in Brazil.
    VOCÊ (you, sing.)
    ELE / ELA (he / she)

    NÓS (we)
    (Vós) (you, pl.) - used in prayers, sermons, and very formal speeches.
    VOCÊS (you, pl.)
    ELES / ELAS (they)

    There is no personal pronoun "IT" in Portuguese (we will see more about that later).
    ______________________________________________________________________________

    ATTENTION: although referring to the SECOND person (you), the forms
    VOCÊ and VOCÊS take the VERB in the THIRD person
    (the same verb forms of "he/she" and "they").
    Observe the present tense of verb SER (to be) below:
    EU sou NÓS somos
    VOCÊ é VOCÊS são
    ELE/ELA é ELES/ELAS são
    _____________________________________________________________________________

    NOTE: due to limited use, the forms "TU" and "VÓS" will not be used in this course.

  11. é

    TO BE (SER)

    The English verb TO BE can be translated by two verbs in Portuguese: SER and ESTAR.
    Now you will learn about SER and later you will learn about ESTAR and the differences between the two verbs.
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    Verb SER, 'to be' (irregular):
    PRESENT TENSE
    Eu sou 'I am'
    Você é 'You are'
    Ele / Ela é 'He / She is'

    Nós somos 'We are'
    Vocês são 'You are'
    Eles / Elas são 'They are'
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    Examples: eu sou morena; ele é Paulo; ela é americana
    nós somos brasileiros; elas são bonitas; eles são altos.

    NOTE: as you saw in "THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE," one of the most important cities in Brazil is São Paulo. The word "são" in São Paulo means "saint" (as in St. Paul) and is NOT related in any way to the word "são" meaning 'are.'

  12. a

    ARTIGOS DEFINIDOS, Definite Articles
    GÊNERO e NÚMERO, Gender and Number of nouns

    In English there is only one Definite Article (THE) used with all nouns.

    In Portuguese there are four Definite Articles. The articles match the noun's GENDER (either masculine or feminine) and NUMBER (either singular or plural).

    DEFINITE ARTICLES

    O - the: masculine, singular Ex.: o inferno; o carro
    A - the: feminine, singular Ex.: a cidade; a mala
    OS - the: masculine, plural Ex.: os carros; os infernos
    AS - the: feminine, plural Ex.: as malas; as cidades
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    GENDER
    In Portuguese all nouns are either masculine or feminine. There is no explanation why "the pen" is feminine (a caneta) and "the book" is masculine (o livro).

    * As a general rule, nouns ending in -A are feminine and nouns ending in -O are masculine.
    Ex.: o moço -> a moça o menino -> a menina

    * Words ending in -OR or -ÊS (masc.) add A (fem.)
    Ex.: o inglês -> a inglesa o francês -> a francesa o senhor -> a senhora

    * In some cases different words are used.
    Ex.: o pai -> a mãe o homem -> a mulher

    * The best way to learn is to memorize the article together with the noun.
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    _
    Note: In Portuguese it is common to use the article before PERSONAL NAMES:
    Ex: O José; a Sandra; o Roberto; a Ana.

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF: Look at the text and find a personal name preceded by an article.

  13. Desculpe

    ASKING TO BE EXCUSED

    We already learned that "desculpe" can be used to attract another person's attention.
    However, in this example "desculpe" is used in a different way:

    * After an action you want to be excused from:
    Ex.: "Ah... Desculpe." "Desculpe o atraso."

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF: identify both cases of "desculpe" in the text and compare them.


  14. alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha.

    ADJETIVOS, Adjectives

    Some adjectives used for PHYSICAL DESCRIPTIONS:

    "alto/alta," "baixo/baixa" = tall, short
    "magro/magra," "gordo/gorda" = skinny, fat
    "o/a jovem," "velho/velha" = young, old

    "Gordinho(a)," literally 'a little bit overweight,' is an affectionate way to say someone is not skinny.

    You can describe a person by
    the HAIR (o CABELO):
    -cor (color) = preto (black), castanho (brown), louro (blond), grisalho (gray)
    -tipo (type) = liso (straight), ondulado (wavy), encaracolado ((curly)
    -tamanho (size)= curto (short), médio (medium), comprido (long).

    the EYES (os OLHOS):
    castanhos (brown), pretos (black), verdes (green), azuis (blue).

    the SKIN (a PELE):
    preta (black), morena (dark), branca (white).


  15. Com licença

    More on ASKING TO BE EXCUSED

    The English "excuse me" can be translated into two forms:
    'desculpe' and 'com licença.'

    * BOTH FORMS ARE USED TO DRAW OTHER PEOPLE'S ATTENTION:
    Ex: Desculpe, você é o Renato? Com licença, você é o Renato?
    ______________________________________________________________________________

    * BOTH FORMS ARE USED TO ASK TO BE EXCUSED, as well.
    In this case, however, these expressions are used in different ways:

    1) -USE "COM LICENÇA" (literally, 'with permission') BEFORE the action you want to be excused from. For instance, before leaving the table while other people are still eating.
    (The answer for "COM LICENÇA" is "POIS NÃO.")

    2) -USE "DESCULPE" (as 'I'm sorry') AFTER the action you want to be excused from.
    For instance, when unintentionally bumping into someone.

  16. O prazer é meu

    INTRODUCING YOURSELF

    People often introduce themselves (usually with a handshake) at a party, in a new classroom, or in a new neighborhood. Ex.:

    At a party: In a classroom:

    -Oi, sou a Renata. -Meu nome é Fábio. Como é seu nome?
    -Muito prazer. Cláudio. -Tânia. Prazer.
    -Prazer. -O prazer é meu.

  17. as mãos

    PLURAL OF NOUNS

    The general rule to form the plural of nouns:
    - add an "s" to the singular word.

    Ex.: moça -> moçaS mão -> mãoS carro -> carroS

    - remember, the adjective agrees with the noun in relation to both gender and number (sing. or plural).

    Ex.: moça bonita -> moçaS bonitaS carro pequeno -> carroS pequenoS

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF: Look in the text and find two words in the plural which are different from those in the examples above.

  18. beija

    BRAZILIAN WAY: Greetings

    Brazilians usually greet each other (two women, or a man and a woman) with kisses on the cheek (one on each side). Two men just shake hands and/or hug, tapping on each other's back or shoulder.

  19. Bem-vinda

    WELCOMING PEOPLE

    Remember: "welcome" in Portuguese depends on who you are talking to.

    If you are talking...

    To one man: "BEM-VINDO" To more than one man: "BEM-VINDOS"
    To one woman: "BEM-VINDA" To more than one woman: "BEM-VINDAS"

    When you have both genders, use the masculine plural: "BEM-VINDOS"

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF:
    Did you notice the different endings in the examples above?
    Find another "welcome" in the text of the lesson. To whom is it directed?

  20. Brasil

    FONÉTICA: The consonant "L"

    The consonant "L" is pronounced as in English when it comes BEFORE A VOWEL.
    Ex.: lulu; falo; lá.

    However, BEFORE A CONSONANT and AT THE END of the word it sounds like /u/ or /w/
    Thus, the word 'Brasil' is pronounced as /braziu/.

    ____________
    Other examples:
    Before a consonant: FALTA ALGUÉM
    At the end of the word: FÁCIL ANEL PAPEL BARRIL

  21. o atraso

    BRAZILIAN WAY: O Atraso, The Delay

    Brazilians are often late for their appointments, particularly social ones. For most Brazilians, 15-30 minutes delay is accepted and thus is not impolite. However, they usually explain the reason for the delay and ask to be excused.

    Ex.: Desculpe o atraso. O trânsito na cidade é um inferno!

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF: Who was late in the dialogue? How late?

  22. na

    PREPOSITIONS: NO, NA, NOS, NAS

    NO means 'IN+THE' [masc] or 'AT+THE' [masc] or 'ON+THE' [masc].
    Similarly,
    NA means 'IN+THE' [fem] or 'AT+THE' [fem] or 'ON+THE' [fem].

    Thus, in this lesson
    we see NO aeroporto ('aeroporto' is masculine: o aeroporto)
    and NA cidade ('cidade' is feminine: a cidade)
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    For masculine plural, there is NOS Ex.: nos aeroportos
    And for feminine plural, there is NAS Ex.: nas cidades

    _______________________________________________________________________________
    OTHER EXAMPLES:

    O livro está NA mesa 'the book is ON the table'
    Os livros estão NAS caixas 'the books are IN the boxes'
    Ele está NO cinema 'he is AT the movies'

  23. um

    The INDEFINITE ARTICLES (a, an)

    UM - when the noun is masculine singular. Ex.: um livro; um carro
    UMA - when the noun is feminine singular Ex.: uma moça; uma casa.

    UNS - when the noun is masculine plural Ex.: uns livros; uns carros.
    UMAS - when the noun is feminine plural Ex.: umas moças; umas casas.

    Note: UNS and UMAS are equivalent to SOME in English.

    ATTENTION: the indefinite article masc. sing. (UM) and the number one (UM) are spelled and pronounced the same way.

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF: find an indefinite article fem. sing. in the text.

  24. Não tem importância

    REPLYING TO OTHER PEOPLE'S EXCUSES

    When someone says "Desculpe" ('excuse me'), you can answer in various ways:

    Não foi nada (literally, 'it was nothing').
    Não tem problema (literally, 'there is no problem').
    Não há de quê (literally, 'there is no reason for it').
    Não faz mal (literally, 'it does not do any harm').
    Or, as in this lesson: "Não tem importância." (literally, 'it's not important').

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF Look in the text and find another case of 'desculpe' followed by one of the answers above.

  25. Vamos

    Verb IR, 'to go' (irregular)

    PRESENT TENSE
    eu vou 'I go'
    você vai 'you go'
    ele / ela vai 'he / she goes'
    nós vamos 'we go'
    vocês vão 'you go'
    eles / elas vão 'they go'
    ______________________________________________________________________________

    The expression 'Vamos...' is equivalent to 'Let's....'
    Ex.: Vamos dançar! 'Let's dance'

  26. para o

    PREPOSITION "PARA" + the DEFINITE ARTICLES

    PARA (TO) + O (THE) Para o cinema
    PARA (TO) + A (THE) Para a cidade
    PARA (TO) + OS (THE) Para os teatros
    PARA (TO) + AS (THE) Para as casas

    "PRO" - is an informal contracted way of saying "PARA O" ('TO THE [masc]')
    Ex.: Vamos para o (pro) cinema!; Vamos para o (pro) circo!

    "PRA" - is an informal contracted way of saying "PARA A" ('TO THE [fem]')
    Ex.: Vamos para a (pra) casa; Vamos para a (pra) cidade
    _______________________________________________________________________________

    The plural forms are PARA OS (informally, "pros")
    and PARA AS (informally, "pras")
    _______________________________________________________________________________

    NOTE:
    * In FORMAL written Portuguese always use "PARA O" and "PARA A"
    * In INFORMAL writing you may use either form, although PARA O/A is preferred.

    A current general tendency is that people use PARA O/A in informal writing but say PRO/PRA when they read it..

    _______________
    TEST YOURSELF: find a sentence with 'para' (fem.) in the text.

  27. The 7 oral vowel sounds

    AS VOGAIS ORAIS, The oral vowels

    There are 5 VOWELS in Portuguese: a - e - i - o - u
    However, there are 7 "oral vowel sounds": /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/

    Practice the following words:
    /a/ casa, mala, fala
    /é/ café, José, belo
    /ê/ você, prazer, o quê?
    /i/ ri, vida, Sílvia
    /ó/ avó, só, pó
    /ô/ avô, alô, flor

    If the word has an accent, you can tell whether the vowel is open (with ') or closed (with ^ ).
    Otherwise, you need to listen and learn the correct pronunciation of each word.

  28. AGORA VOCÊ SABE

    Now you know:

    HOW TO USE PORTUGUESE TO: introduce yourself; greet people; excuse yourself; reply to other people's excuses; draw someone's attention; welcome people; give physical description; ask for clarification.

    PORTUGUESE GRAMMAR: gender and number of nouns; definite and indefinite articles; personal pronouns; verb 'to be' (SER); verb 'to go' (IR); expressions: Vamos... (Let's...); adjectives to describe people; prepositions: PARA O(OS), PARA A(AS), NO, NA, NOS, NAS.
    New verbs: chegar; acenar; lembrar; ter; apertar; beijar.

    PORTUGUESE PHONETICS: the oral vowel sounds; the consonant "l."

  29. PRATIQUE MAIS


    1- COMPARE THE WAY PEOPLE DO THINGS
    IN PORTUGUESE (in the lesson) AND IN YOUR LANGUAGE:
    -How do you introduce yourself in your language?
    -How do you draw other people's attention in your country?

    2- DESCRIBING PEOPLE
    a- How do you describe yourself? List four adjectives.
    b- Think of other people you know (friends, relatives, etc.) and describe them also.


Close video window

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Portuguese: Word View, click below to listen
Lição um (1): NO AEROPORTO Play Video


"Informamos a chegada do avião da Varig, vôo 123, procedente de Chicago. Senhores passageiros sejam bem-vindos ao Recife!"
...........................................................................................................
15 minutos mais tarde, Pedrinho chega ao setor de "Desembarque Internacional" do aeroporto. Ele acena para uma moça.

Pedrinho: Helen, aqui!
Moça: O quê?
P: Desculpe, você é a Helen?
M: Não.
P: Ah... Desculpe. Eu...
M: Não tem problema.
Pedrinho lembra:
P: Helen é alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha...
P: Com licença... Helen?
Helen: Sim! Você é o Pedro?
P: Sou. Pedro Rodrigues.
H: Muito prazer.
P: O prazer é meu.
Eles apertam as mãos e Pedrinho beija Helen na face. Play Video

P: Bem-vinda ao Brasil!
H: Obrigada!
P: Desculpe o atraso. O trânsito na cidade é um inferno!
H: Não tem importância!
P: Vamos levar as malas para o carro.
H: Elas são muito grandes.
P: Não tem problema. Vamos para casa!
H: Ótimo.
Play Video

The 5 vowels: a - e - i - o - u
The 7 oral vowel sounds: /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/


AGORA VOCÊ SABE 'now you know' PRATIQUE MAIS 'further practice'
CANTADO COM KAIA 'singing with Kaia'


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

Portuguese: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lição um (1): NO AEROPORTO Play Video


"Informamos a chegada do avião da Varig, vôo 123, procedente de Chicago. Senhores passageiros sejam bem-vindos ao Recife!"
...........................................................................................................
15 minutos mais tarde, Pedrinho chega ao setor de "Desembarque Internacional" do aeroporto. Ele acena para uma moça.

Pedrinho: Helen, aqui!
Moça: O quê?
P: Desculpe, você é a Helen?
M: Não.
P: Ah... Desculpe. Eu...
M: Não tem problema.
Pedrinho lembra:
P: Helen é alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha...
P: Com licença... Helen?
Helen: Sim! Você é o Pedro?
P: Sou. Pedro Rodrigues.
H: Muito prazer.
P: O prazer é meu.
Eles apertam as mãos e Pedrinho beija Helen na face. Play Video

P: Bem-vinda ao Brasil!
H: Obrigada!
P: Desculpe o atraso. O trânsito na cidade é um inferno!
H: Não tem importância!
P: Vamos levar as malas para o carro.
H: Elas são muito grandes.
P: Não tem problema. Vamos para casa!
H: Ótimo.
Play Video

The 5 vowels: a - e - i - o - u
The 7 oral vowel sounds: /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/


AGORA VOCÊ SABE 'now you know' PRATIQUE MAIS 'further practice'
CANTADO COM KAIA 'singing with Kaia'


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

English: Word View, click below to listen
Lição um (1): NO AEROPORTO Play Video


"Informamos a chegada do avião da Varig, vôo 123, procedente de Chicago. Senhores passageiros sejam bem-vindos ao Recife!"
...........................................................................................................
15 minutos mais tarde, Pedrinho chega ao setor de "Desembarque Internacional" do aeroporto. Ele acena para uma moça.

Pedrinho: Helen, aqui!
Moça: O quê?
P: Desculpe, você é a Helen?
M: Não.
P: Ah... Desculpe. Eu...
M: Não tem problema.
Pedrinho lembra:
P: Helen é alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha...
P: Com licença... Helen?
Helen: Sim! Você é o Pedro?
P: Sou. Pedro Rodrigues.
H: Muito prazer.
P: O prazer é meu.
Eles apertam as mãos e Pedrinho beija Helen na face. Play Video

P: Bem-vinda ao Brasil!
H: Obrigada!
P: Desculpe o atraso. O trânsito na cidade é um inferno!
H: Não tem importância!
P: Vamos levar as malas para o carro.
H: Elas são muito grandes.
P: Não tem problema. Vamos para casa!
H: Ótimo.
Play Video

The 5 vowels: a - e - i - o - u
The 7 oral vowel sounds: /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/


AGORA VOCÊ SABE 'now you know' PRATIQUE MAIS 'further practice'
CANTADO COM KAIA 'singing with Kaia'


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

English: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lição um (1): NO AEROPORTO Play Video


"Informamos a chegada do avião da Varig, vôo 123, procedente de Chicago. Senhores passageiros sejam bem-vindos ao Recife!"
...........................................................................................................
15 minutos mais tarde, Pedrinho chega ao setor de "Desembarque Internacional" do aeroporto. Ele acena para uma moça.

Pedrinho: Helen, aqui!
Moça: O quê?
P: Desculpe, você é a Helen?
M: Não.
P: Ah... Desculpe. Eu...
M: Não tem problema.
Pedrinho lembra:
P: Helen é alta, morena, cabelo castanho comprido, gordinha...
P: Com licença... Helen?
Helen: Sim! Você é o Pedro?
P: Sou. Pedro Rodrigues.
H: Muito prazer.
P: O prazer é meu.
Eles apertam as mãos e Pedrinho beija Helen na face. Play Video

P: Bem-vinda ao Brasil!
H: Obrigada!
P: Desculpe o atraso. O trânsito na cidade é um inferno!
H: Não tem importância!
P: Vamos levar as malas para o carro.
H: Elas são muito grandes.
P: Não tem problema. Vamos para casa!
H: Ótimo.
Play Video

The 5 vowels: a - e - i - o - u
The 7 oral vowel sounds: /a/, /é/, /ê/, /i/, /ó/, /ô/, /u/


AGORA VOCÊ SABE 'now you know' PRATIQUE MAIS 'further practice'
CANTADO COM KAIA 'singing with Kaia'


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com