Primary Ezafeh Construction (Noun Connector)
In Kurmanji the primary ezafeh construction is used to link a noun to another noun or to a modifier (an adjective, a proper noun, or a possessive pronoun). All Kurmanji nouns are either masculine or feminine. Therefore, each Kurdish noun must be learned along with its gender because in the ezafeh construction nouns are connected to another noun or to the modifier with the ezafeh endings. Hence, the masculine singular nouns are connected to the modifier with the ezafeh ending "", e.g., "çavê min" (my eye), "çavê reş" (the black eye), whereas the feminine singular nouns take the ezafeh ending "-a," e.g., "pênûsa te," (your pen), "pênûsa sor" (the red pen)." The plural of both masculine and feminine nouns takes the plural ezafeh ending "-ên," e.g., "çavên te," (your eyes), "pênûsên sor" (the red pens), which does not distinguish gender.

Note that it is not possible to form a possessive structure, a noun phrase or an adjective phrase without using ezafeh endings. Only by adding the ezafeh ending can a noun or a modifier be connected to the head noun.

Ezafeh constructions occur in two instances:
a. In a possessive structure: Add the appropriate ezafeh ending to the end of the head noun that is followed by an oblique (possessive) pronoun. Note that only the oblique case of personal pronouns (not nominative case of pronouns) can be used as determiners in the possessive structure as demonstrated in the examples below.
When the noun ends in a vowel, insert a "y" between the noun and the ezafeh ending.

Masculine = ê e.g., bavê min (my father), birayê te (your brother)
Feminine = a e.g., xûşka wan (their sister), qaweya wî (his coffee)
Plural = ên e.g., trimbêlên wê (her cars), xanîyên wan (their houses)

Masculine noun:

Bira (brother)
Birayê min (my brother)
Birayê te (your brother)
Birayê wî (his brother)
Birayê wê (her brother)
Birayê me (our brother)
Birayê we (your brother)
Birayê wan (their brother)

Feminine noun:

Xûşk (sister)
Xûşka min (my sister)
Xûşka te (your sister)
Xûşka wî (his sister)
Xûşka wê (her sister)
Xûşka me (our sister)
Xûşka we (your sister)
Xûşka wan (their sister)

Plural nouns:

Xûşkên min (my sisters)
Xûşkên te (your sisters)
Xûşkên wî (his sisters)
Birayên wê (her brothers)
Birayên me (our brothers)
Birayên we (your brothers)
Birayên wan (their brothers)

Some nouns, such as mamosta (teacher), xwendekar (student), heval (friend), can be either masculine or feminine depending on the gender of person they refer to.

mamostayê min (my (male) teacher)
mamostaya wan (their (female) teacher)

b. To form a noun phrase or an adjective phrase: Put the appropriate ezafeh ending at the end of the head noun that precedes an adjective or a noun as in the examples below:

With masculine nouns:
Çante (bag)
çanteyê giran... (the heavy bag)...

Xanî (house)
xanîyê buha... (the expensive house)...

Balîf (pillow)
balîfê nerm... (the soft pillow)...

With feminine nouns:
Mase (table/desk)
maseya mezin... (the big table)...

Av (water)
ava sar... (the cold water)...

Pirtûk (book)
pirtûka sor... (the red book)...

With plural nouns:
Şûşe (bottle)
şûşeyên avê... (the bottles of water)...

Mirov (people/human being)
mirovên jîr... (the clever people)...

pirtûk (book)
pirtûkên nû... (the new books)...

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