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Lesson 6: Tìnhei


(Lòh Ōn-nèih tùhng Chàhn Giht-mìhng hái fosāt ngoihbihn kìnggái.) Play Video

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Lòh: Chēutbihn hóu lèuhng. Giht-Mìhng, Gwóngjàu ge1 ge
*ge* functions here as a possessive marker.
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dùngtìn dung2 dung
*Dung* 'to be cold' and *lèuhngsóng* 'to be cool' function as stative verbs--that is, they serve as full verb phrases and do not require the 'to be' verb *haih*.
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m̀hdung a?
Chàhn: Gwóngjàu m̀hhaih hóu dung. Bākgìng dungdī a. Heiwān tùhngsèuhng hái lìhnghah3 lìhnghah
Literally means 'zero-below.'
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seidouh4 seidouh
'four-degrees'
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jóyauh.
Lòh: Sipsih dìhnghaih wàhsih?
Chàhn: Sipsih. Jùnggwokyàhn5 Jùnggwokyàhn
The usual way to indicate nationality is to affix *-yàhn* 'person' to the country name as below:

Jùnggwok+yàhn 'Chinese (person)'
Yahtbún+yàhn 'Japanese (person)'
Faatgwok+yàhn 'French (person)'
Méihgwok+yàhn 'American (person)'



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tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.6 tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.
As in most places outside of the U.S., China uses the celsius (*sipsih*) rather than the fahrenheit (*wàhsih*) temperature scale.
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Lòh: Hahtìn, Gwóngjàu wúihm̀hwúih hóu yiht a7 a
Optional, but common, final particle that appears with non-*ma* questions such as the A-not-A choice question in this sentence: wúihm̀hwúih 'will it?'
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?
Chàhn: Sāpsāp yihtyiht8 Sāpsāp yihtyiht
This sort of reduplication is common in Cantonese. When it occurs with adjectivals and adverbials as it does in this sentence, it intensifies the effect of the adjectival. Here *yihtyiht* means not just 'hot,' but 'quite hot.' Similarly, *sāpsāp* means 'quite humid.' The time adverbial*sìhsìh* means 'all the time' or 'frequently.' Be aware, however, that reduplication of a verb has the opposite effect. For example, whereas *si* means 'to try,' *sisi* means 'try it out' or 'try a little.' Note that Cantonese frequently inserts *yāt* 'one' between the two occurrences of the verb, as with *siyātsi*.
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, juhng sìhsìh lohkyúh. Faatgwok tìnhei dím a9 a
Optional, but common, final particle that appears with non-*ma* questions such as the *dím* 'how' in this sentence.
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?
Lòh: Dùngtìn yáuhsìh10 yáuhsìh
*Yáuhsìh*, literally 'there are+time(s),' means 'sometimes.' As noted in lesson 2, *yáuh* has two basic meanings: 'to have' and 'there is/are.'
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lohksyut, hahtìn yiht11
The suffix *-dī* when affixed to a stative verb as it is here with *yihtdī* marks the comparative. Stative verbs (e.g., *yiht* 'to be hot,' *dung* 'to be cold,' etc. tend to be inherently comparative--whether marked with *dī* or not. For example, when asking which of two places (say, Canton or Paris) is hotter one can simply say: *bīnyātgo deihfōng yiht* and the person might respond: *Gwóngjàu yiht* 'Canton is
hotter.' Context or the presence of a modifier such as *hóu* 'very' can make stative verbs non-comparative.
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la, chēuntìn tùhng chàutìn jeui syùfuhk.
Chàhn: Néih tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng12 tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng
This sentence is typical of Cantonese sentences that contain a co- verbial clause (sometimes called a prepositional clause). Note that the co-verbial phrase comes before the main verb in Cantonese: 'you with Yoko have-gone Japan,' rendered in English as 'You went to Japan with Yoko.'
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ga13 ga
A final utterance particle indicating speculation or showing that one is not completely sure of his or her assertion. Here Chan Git-ming seems to recall that Annie had been to Tokyo with Yoko, but is not sure.
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. Góbihn ge tìnhei syùm̀hsyùfuhk14 syùm̀hsyùfuhk
*Syùfuhk* has several senses including 'comfortable' and 'pleasant'. Here it refers to the weather being pleasant.
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a?
Lòh: Góbihn dùngtìn daaihkoi sipsih ńghdouh. Dùnggìngge chēuntìn dahkbiht leng, yìngfà dōu hòisaai.
Chàhn: Haih mē? Ngóh hóu jùngyi léuihhàhng gàh. Néih géisìh fàan Faatgwok a? Dáng bīnyaht Ngóh chóuhjūk chíhn, yātdihng yiu heui Faatgwok wáanháh15 wáanháh
*Wáan* can mean 'to play,' or with adults, 'to have a good time,' 'to go on an excursion,' etc.
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, fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?16 fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?
This question is somewhat forward and said slightly tongue-in-cheek. Because Annie and Chan Git-ming are freinds, Chan Git-ming is comfortable in his apparent boldness.
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Lòh: Dòngyihn fùnyihng lā!

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
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[ Conventions and Grammatical Terms17 Conventions and Grammatical Terms

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| Particles18 Particles

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| Place Names19 Place Names

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| Map of Asia20 Map of Asia

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Weather Weather
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| Numbers Numbers
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| Dates Dates
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| Time Time
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| Celcius vs. Farenheit21 Celcius vs. Farenheit

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Hong Kong Weather Report22 Hong Kong Weather Report

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| Chinese Weather Report23 Chinese Weather Report

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]


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Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

 

▲ Hide Footnotes

  1. ge

    *ge* functions here as a possessive marker.

  2. dung

    *Dung* 'to be cold' and *lèuhngsóng* 'to be cool' function as stative verbs--that is, they serve as full verb phrases and do not require the 'to be' verb *haih*.

  3. lìhnghah

    Literally means 'zero-below.'

  4. seidouh

    'four-degrees'

  5. Jùnggwokyàhn

    The usual way to indicate nationality is to affix *-yàhn* 'person' to the country name as below:

    Jùnggwok+yàhn 'Chinese (person)'
    Yahtbún+yàhn 'Japanese (person)'
    Faatgwok+yàhn 'French (person)'
    Méihgwok+yàhn 'American (person)'



  6. tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.

    As in most places outside of the U.S., China uses the celsius (*sipsih*) rather than the fahrenheit (*wàhsih*) temperature scale.

  7. a

    Optional, but common, final particle that appears with non-*ma* questions such as the A-not-A choice question in this sentence: wúihm̀hwúih 'will it?'

  8. Sāpsāp yihtyiht

    This sort of reduplication is common in Cantonese. When it occurs with adjectivals and adverbials as it does in this sentence, it intensifies the effect of the adjectival. Here *yihtyiht* means not just 'hot,' but 'quite hot.' Similarly, *sāpsāp* means 'quite humid.' The time adverbial*sìhsìh* means 'all the time' or 'frequently.' Be aware, however, that reduplication of a verb has the opposite effect. For example, whereas *si* means 'to try,' *sisi* means 'try it out' or 'try a little.' Note that Cantonese frequently inserts *yāt* 'one' between the two occurrences of the verb, as with *siyātsi*.

  9. a

    Optional, but common, final particle that appears with non-*ma* questions such as the *dím* 'how' in this sentence.

  10. yáuhsìh

    *Yáuhsìh*, literally 'there are+time(s),' means 'sometimes.' As noted in lesson 2, *yáuh* has two basic meanings: 'to have' and 'there is/are.'

  11. The suffix *-dī* when affixed to a stative verb as it is here with *yihtdī* marks the comparative. Stative verbs (e.g., *yiht* 'to be hot,' *dung* 'to be cold,' etc. tend to be inherently comparative--whether marked with *dī* or not. For example, when asking which of two places (say, Canton or Paris) is hotter one can simply say: *bīnyātgo deihfōng yiht* and the person might respond: *Gwóngjàu yiht* 'Canton is
    hotter.' Context or the presence of a modifier such as *hóu* 'very' can make stative verbs non-comparative.

  12. tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng

    This sentence is typical of Cantonese sentences that contain a co- verbial clause (sometimes called a prepositional clause). Note that the co-verbial phrase comes before the main verb in Cantonese: 'you with Yoko have-gone Japan,' rendered in English as 'You went to Japan with Yoko.'

  13. ga

    A final utterance particle indicating speculation or showing that one is not completely sure of his or her assertion. Here Chan Git-ming seems to recall that Annie had been to Tokyo with Yoko, but is not sure.

  14. syùm̀hsyùfuhk

    *Syùfuhk* has several senses including 'comfortable' and 'pleasant'. Here it refers to the weather being pleasant.

  15. wáanháh

    *Wáan* can mean 'to play,' or with adults, 'to have a good time,' 'to go on an excursion,' etc.

  16. fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?

    This question is somewhat forward and said slightly tongue-in-cheek. Because Annie and Chan Git-ming are freinds, Chan Git-ming is comfortable in his apparent boldness.

  17. Conventions and Grammatical Terms

  18. Particles

  19. Place Names

  20. Map of Asia

  21. Celcius vs. Farenheit

  22. Hong Kong Weather Report

  23. Chinese Weather Report

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Cantonese: Word View, click below to listen
Lesson 6: Tìnhei


(Lòh Ōn-nèih tùhng Chàhn Giht-mìhng hái fosāt ngoihbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Lòh: Chēutbihn hóu lèuhng. Giht-Mìhng, Gwóngjàu ge dùngtìn dung m̀hdung a?
Chàhn: Gwóngjàu m̀hhaih hóu dung. Bākgìng dungdī a. Heiwān tùhngsèuhng hái lìhnghah seidouh jóyauh.
Lòh: Sipsih dìhnghaih wàhsih?
Chàhn: Sipsih. Jùnggwokyàhn tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.
Lòh: Hahtìn, Gwóngjàu wúihm̀hwúih hóu yiht a?
Chàhn: Sāpsāp yihtyiht, juhng sìhsìh lohkyúh. Faatgwok tìnhei dím a?
Lòh: Dùngtìn yáuhsìh lohksyut, hahtìn yihtdī la, chēuntìn tùhng chàutìn jeui syùfuhk.
Chàhn: Néih tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng ga. Góbihn ge tìnhei syùm̀hsyùfuhk a?
Lòh: Góbihn dùngtìn daaihkoi sipsih ńghdouh. Dùnggìngge chēuntìn dahkbiht leng, yìngfà dōu hòisaai.
Chàhn: Haih ? Ngóh hóu jùngyi léuihhàhng gàh. Néih géisìh fàan Faatgwok a? Dáng bīnyaht Ngóh chóuhjūk chíhn, yātdihng yiu heui Faatgwok wáanháh, fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?
Lòh: Dòngyihn fùnyihng !

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Place Names | Map of Asia
Weather | Numbers | Dates | Time | Celcius vs. Farenheit
Hong Kong Weather Report | Chinese Weather Report ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

Cantonese: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lesson 6: Tìnhei


(Lòh Ōn-nèih tùhng Chàhn Giht-mìhng hái fosāt ngoihbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Lòh: Chēutbihn hóu lèuhng. Giht-Mìhng, Gwóngjàu ge dùngtìn dung m̀hdung a?
Chàhn: Gwóngjàu m̀hhaih hóu dung. Bākgìng dungdī a. Heiwān tùhngsèuhng hái lìhnghah seidouh jóyauh.
Lòh: Sipsih dìhnghaih wàhsih?
Chàhn: Sipsih. Jùnggwokyàhn tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.
Lòh: Hahtìn, Gwóngjàu wúihm̀hwúih hóu yiht a?
Chàhn: Sāpsāp yihtyiht, juhng sìhsìh lohkyúh. Faatgwok tìnhei dím a?
Lòh: Dùngtìn yáuhsìh lohksyut, hahtìn yihtdī la, chēuntìn tùhng chàutìn jeui syùfuhk.
Chàhn: Néih tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng ga. Góbihn ge tìnhei syùm̀hsyùfuhk a?
Lòh: Góbihn dùngtìn daaihkoi sipsih ńghdouh. Dùnggìngge chēuntìn dahkbiht leng, yìngfà dōu hòisaai.
Chàhn: Haih mē? Ngóh hóu jùngyi léuihhàhng gàh. Néih géisìh fàan Faatgwok a? Dáng bīnyaht Ngóh chóuhjūk chíhn, yātdihng yiu heui Faatgwok wáanháh, fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?
Lòh: Dòngyihn fùnyihng lā!

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Place Names | Map of Asia
Weather | Numbers | Dates | Time | Celcius vs. Farenheit
Hong Kong Weather Report | Chinese Weather Report ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

American English: Word View, click below to listen
Lesson 6: Tìnhei


(Lòh Ōn-nèih tùhng Chàhn Giht-mìhng hái fosāt ngoihbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Lòh: Chēutbihn hóu lèuhng. Giht-Mìhng, Gwóngjàu ge dùngtìn dung m̀hdung a?
Chàhn: Gwóngjàu m̀hhaih hóu dung. Bākgìng dungdī a. Heiwān tùhngsèuhng hái lìhnghah seidouh jóyauh.
Lòh: Sipsih dìhnghaih wàhsih?
Chàhn: Sipsih. Jùnggwokyàhn tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.
Lòh: Hahtìn, Gwóngjàu wúihm̀hwúih hóu yiht a?
Chàhn: Sāpsāp yihtyiht, juhng sìhsìh lohkyúh. Faatgwok tìnhei dím a?
Lòh: Dùngtìn yáuhsìh lohksyut, hahtìn yihtdī la, chēuntìn tùhng chàutìn jeui syùfuhk.
Chàhn: Néih tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng ga. Góbihn ge tìnhei syùm̀hsyùfuhk a?
Lòh: Góbihn dùngtìn daaihkoi sipsih ńghdouh. Dùnggìngge chēuntìn dahkbiht leng, yìngfà dōu hòisaai.
Chàhn: Haih ? Ngóh hóu jùngyi léuihhàhng gàh. Néih géisìh fàan Faatgwok a? Dáng bīnyaht Ngóh chóuhjūk chíhn, yātdihng yiu heui Faatgwok wáanháh, fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?
Lòh: Dòngyihn fùnyihng !

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Place Names | Map of Asia
Weather | Numbers | Dates | Time | Celcius vs. Farenheit
Hong Kong Weather Report | Chinese Weather Report ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

American English: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lesson 6: Tìnhei


(Lòh Ōn-nèih tùhng Chàhn Giht-mìhng hái fosāt ngoihbihn kìnggái.) Play Video


Lòh: Chēutbihn hóu lèuhng. Giht-Mìhng, Gwóngjàu ge dùngtìn dung m̀hdung a?
Chàhn: Gwóngjàu m̀hhaih hóu dung. Bākgìng dungdī a. Heiwān tùhngsèuhng hái lìhnghah seidouh jóyauh.
Lòh: Sipsih dìhnghaih wàhsih?
Chàhn: Sipsih. Jùnggwokyàhn tùhngsèuhng m̀hyuhng wàhsih.
Lòh: Hahtìn, Gwóngjàu wúihm̀hwúih hóu yiht a?
Chàhn: Sāpsāp yihtyiht, juhng sìhsìh lohkyúh. Faatgwok tìnhei dím a?
Lòh: Dùngtìn yáuhsìh lohksyut, hahtìn yihtdī la, chēuntìn tùhng chàutìn jeui syùfuhk.
Chàhn: Néih tùhng Làhm Yèuhngjí heuigwo Dùnggìng ga. Góbihn ge tìnhei syùm̀hsyùfuhk a?
Lòh: Góbihn dùngtìn daaihkoi sipsih ńghdouh. Dùnggìngge chēuntìn dahkbiht leng, yìngfà dōu hòisaai.
Chàhn: Haih mē? Ngóh hóu jùngyi léuihhàhng gàh. Néih géisìh fàan Faatgwok a? Dáng bīnyaht Ngóh chóuhjūk chíhn, yātdihng yiu heui Faatgwok wáanháh, fùnm̀hfùnyihng a?
Lòh: Dòngyihn fùnyihng lā!

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Place Names | Map of Asia
Weather | Numbers | Dates | Time | Celcius vs. Farenheit
Hong Kong Weather Report | Chinese Weather Report ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com