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Lesson 5: Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn1 Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn

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(Làhm Yèuhng-jí tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih yahpdou yātgàan chāangún chóhdài.)

Lòh Ōn-Nèih: M̀hgòi, fógei, dím sung2 dím sung
Literally, to ask or to call for dishes [of food]. Ordering food is often a sophisticated process in China and one that involves much social ritual. To show respect guests are often asked to choose dishes. However, you may usually defer to your Chinese host without offense.

Chinese typically share dishes when eating out. Usually one orders at least one dish per person plus one extra. Chinese often take great care in getting an appropriately varied meal in taste, ingredients, texture, and color. At a more formal meal, one might order a seafood dish, a chicken dish, a tofu dish, a fish dish, and perhaps a vegetable dish. In addition, there may be appetizers and a clear soup before the main dish. In this sentence, one can tell by the menu items (mostly plain fare) that this particular restaurant is an informal one.
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a.

(Fógei lójó yātfàn choidāan gwolèih.)

Fógei: Bīn wái3 wái
*-wái* is the honorific counterpart of the classifier *-go* when it is used to refer to people. As with most classifiers it is a bound form that must occur with another word such as a number, specifier, or with the question form *bīn-* 'which,' as it does in this utterance.
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dím sung a?
Làhm Yèuhng-jí: Ngóh gāmyaht chénghaak4 chénghaak
Literally to 'invite a guest(s),' *chénghaak* means here that Yoko is offering to pay. In Chinese culture it is rare and even a little odd to split costs, except in a few situations (such as with regular cafeteria meals with friends or fellow workers). Chinese will often struggle to pick up the tab in restaurants, taxis/buses, with entrance fees, etc. With regular companions it is expected that each will pick up his or her share of various tabs, and that the expenses will generally even out over time. In any case, social convention dictates that you often make a ritual attempt to pay each time. When the dinner is a result of a formal invitation, one is usually not expected to offer to pay, but to show appropriate gratitude. Offering to pay just one's share is viewed as especially odd, if not peculiarly Western.
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; Ōn-Nèih, néih dím sung 5
Emphatic particle. When pronounced with a high tone as it is here, it is similar in mood to the high tone *ā*. Here *lā* indicates a strong urging by the speaker.
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!
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh nàhsáu síuchoi a?
Fógei: Yáuh yùh-hèung-sèh-sì ā, chàu-sàam-sìn ā, hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Làhm: Tèngyàhngóng6 Tèngyàhngóng
Literally, "[I] have heard people say,' or '[I] have heard.'
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sèh gàng7 gàng
Snake is a delicacy to many Cantonese. The second part of the compound *gàng* refers to a thick soup common in China. In addition to *gàng*, you will find in Cantonese areas a specialty called *jūk*, a type of thick rice gruel. There are numerous variations of *jūk*, and certain stands and small resturants are often dedicated to this dish. Plain and simple *jūk* is often accompanied by a narrow frybread called *yàuhtìuh* (literally, 'oilsticks'), or more colloquially *yàuhjágwái* (literally, 'oil-fry-devils').
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hóu hóusihk ge, yáuhmóuh8 yáuhmóuh
This is an irregular choice-question form. *Yáuh* 'to have' does not take the usual negation marker *m̀h-*. The negative counterpart to *yáuh* is *móuh* 'not have.' Thus, *yáuhmóuh* means 'do [you] have?' The particle *a* is an optional, but common, question marker with choice questions and other non-*ma* questions.
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sèhgàng a?
Fógei: Yáuh9 Yáuh
The affirmative response to the choice question *yáuhmóuh*, meaning 'yes we do have it [snake and rice].'
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.
Lòh: Hóu, Ngóhdeih yiu léuhngwún sèhgàng, juhng yiu yātgo hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Fógei: Jyúsihk yiu dī mātyéh ne? Yáuh10 Yáuh
Note that the implied subject *ngóhdeih* 'we (the restaurant)' is omitted here because it is clear from the context.
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mihn, chàaufaahn, séuigaau11 séuigaau
These are boiled or fried dumplings, typically stuffed with pork, but sometimes with vegetarian fillings; usually translated as 'potstickers' in English.
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.
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh mihn a?
Fógei: Jyùyuhkmihn, ngàauhyuhkmihn, yèuhngyuhkmihn tùhngmàaih chàaumihn.
Lòh: Sihah ngàauhyuhkmihn, hóu m̀hhóu12 hóu m̀hhóu
Another example of the choice-type question, 'OK-not-OK' or simply 'OK, alright?'
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?
Làhm: Hóu ah13 ah
A final particle showing confirmation.
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.

(Gwojó yātjahn'gaan, fógei sung choi. Joi gwo yātjahn, kéuihdeih sihkyùhnfaahn.)

Làhm: Ōn-Nèih, sihkbáau meih a?14 sihkbáau meih a?
Typical question asked at the end of a meal. *Sihkbáau* literally means 'eat to fullness.' *Sihkbáau* represents a larger class of verbs called resultative compounds that take the form: verb+resultative complement. Another type of resultative compound takes the form: verb+infix+resultative where the infix (*dāk* or *m̀h*) represents positive or negative potential. For example, *Sihkdākbáau* would convey the sense of 'able to fill up' whereas *Sihkm̀hbáau* means not able to fill up.
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Lòh: Hóu báau ah.
Làhm: Hóu ā. Fógei, màaihdāan m̀hgòi.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
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[ Conventions and Grammatical Terms15 Conventions and Grammatical Terms

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| Particles16 Particles

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| Food Terms: Romanized Romanized
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/ Chinese Chinese
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Photo - Dim Sum17 Photo - Dim Sum

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| Photo - Chinese Restaurant18 Photo - Chinese Restaurant

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]


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  1. Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn

  2. dím sung

    Literally, to ask or to call for dishes [of food]. Ordering food is often a sophisticated process in China and one that involves much social ritual. To show respect guests are often asked to choose dishes. However, you may usually defer to your Chinese host without offense.

    Chinese typically share dishes when eating out. Usually one orders at least one dish per person plus one extra. Chinese often take great care in getting an appropriately varied meal in taste, ingredients, texture, and color. At a more formal meal, one might order a seafood dish, a chicken dish, a tofu dish, a fish dish, and perhaps a vegetable dish. In addition, there may be appetizers and a clear soup before the main dish. In this sentence, one can tell by the menu items (mostly plain fare) that this particular restaurant is an informal one.

  3. wái

    *-wái* is the honorific counterpart of the classifier *-go* when it is used to refer to people. As with most classifiers it is a bound form that must occur with another word such as a number, specifier, or with the question form *bīn-* 'which,' as it does in this utterance.

  4. chénghaak

    Literally to 'invite a guest(s),' *chénghaak* means here that Yoko is offering to pay. In Chinese culture it is rare and even a little odd to split costs, except in a few situations (such as with regular cafeteria meals with friends or fellow workers). Chinese will often struggle to pick up the tab in restaurants, taxis/buses, with entrance fees, etc. With regular companions it is expected that each will pick up his or her share of various tabs, and that the expenses will generally even out over time. In any case, social convention dictates that you often make a ritual attempt to pay each time. When the dinner is a result of a formal invitation, one is usually not expected to offer to pay, but to show appropriate gratitude. Offering to pay just one's share is viewed as especially odd, if not peculiarly Western.

  5. Emphatic particle. When pronounced with a high tone as it is here, it is similar in mood to the high tone *ā*. Here *lā* indicates a strong urging by the speaker.

  6. Tèngyàhngóng

    Literally, "[I] have heard people say,' or '[I] have heard.'

  7. gàng

    Snake is a delicacy to many Cantonese. The second part of the compound *gàng* refers to a thick soup common in China. In addition to *gàng*, you will find in Cantonese areas a specialty called *jūk*, a type of thick rice gruel. There are numerous variations of *jūk*, and certain stands and small resturants are often dedicated to this dish. Plain and simple *jūk* is often accompanied by a narrow frybread called *yàuhtìuh* (literally, 'oilsticks'), or more colloquially *yàuhjágwái* (literally, 'oil-fry-devils').

  8. yáuhmóuh

    This is an irregular choice-question form. *Yáuh* 'to have' does not take the usual negation marker *m̀h-*. The negative counterpart to *yáuh* is *móuh* 'not have.' Thus, *yáuhmóuh* means 'do [you] have?' The particle *a* is an optional, but common, question marker with choice questions and other non-*ma* questions.

  9. Yáuh

    The affirmative response to the choice question *yáuhmóuh*, meaning 'yes we do have it [snake and rice].'

  10. Yáuh

    Note that the implied subject *ngóhdeih* 'we (the restaurant)' is omitted here because it is clear from the context.

  11. séuigaau

    These are boiled or fried dumplings, typically stuffed with pork, but sometimes with vegetarian fillings; usually translated as 'potstickers' in English.

  12. hóu m̀hhóu

    Another example of the choice-type question, 'OK-not-OK' or simply 'OK, alright?'

  13. ah

    A final particle showing confirmation.

  14. sihkbáau meih a?

    Typical question asked at the end of a meal. *Sihkbáau* literally means 'eat to fullness.' *Sihkbáau* represents a larger class of verbs called resultative compounds that take the form: verb+resultative complement. Another type of resultative compound takes the form: verb+infix+resultative where the infix (*dāk* or *m̀h*) represents positive or negative potential. For example, *Sihkdākbáau* would convey the sense of 'able to fill up' whereas *Sihkm̀hbáau* means not able to fill up.

  15. Conventions and Grammatical Terms

  16. Particles

  17. Photo - Dim Sum

  18. Photo - Chinese Restaurant

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Cantonese: Word View, click below to listen
Lesson 5: Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn

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(Làhm Yèuhng-jí tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih yahpdou yātgàan chāangún chóhdài.)

Lòh Ōn-Nèih: M̀hgòi, fógei, dím sung a.

(Fógei lójó yātfàn choidāan gwolèih.)

Fógei: Bīnwái dím sung a?
Làhm Yèuhng-jí: Ngóh gāmyaht chénghaak; Ōn-Nèih, néih dím sung !
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh nàhsáu síuchoi a?
Fógei: Yáuh yùh-hèung-sèh-sì ā, chàu-sàam-sìn ā, hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Làhm: Tèngyàhngóng sèhgàng hóu hóusihk ge, yáuhmóuh sèhgàng a?
Fógei: Yáuh.
Lòh: Hóu, Ngóhdeih yiu léuhngwún sèhgàng, juhng yiu yātgo hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Fógei: Jyúsihk yiu mātyéh ne? Yáuh mihn, chàaufaahn, séuigaau.
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh mihn a?
Fógei: Jyùyuhkmihn, ngàauhyuhkmihn, yèuhngyuhkmihn tùhngmàaih chàaumihn.
Lòh: Sihah ngàauhyuhkmihn, hóu m̀hhóu?
Làhm: Hóu ah.

(Gwojó yātjahn'gaan, fógei sung choi. Joi gwo yātjahn, kéuihdeih sihkyùhnfaahn.)

Làhm: Ōn-Nèih, sihkbáau meih a?
Lòh: Hóu báau ah.
Làhm: Hóu ā. Fógei, màaihdāan m̀hgòi.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Food Terms: Romanized/ Chinese
Photo - Dim Sum | Photo - Chinese Restaurant ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
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Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

Cantonese: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lesson 5: Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn

Play Video

(Làhm Yèuhng-jí tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih yahpdou yātgàan chāangún chóhdài.)

Lòh Ōn-Nèih: M̀hgòi, fógei, dím sung a.

(Fógei lójó yātfàn choidāan gwolèih.)

Fógei: Bīnwái dím sung a?
Làhm Yèuhng-jí: Ngóh gāmyaht chénghaak; Ōn-Nèih, néih dím sung lā!
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh nàhsáu síuchoi a?
Fógei: Yáuh yùh-hèung-sèh-sì ā, chàu-sàam-sìn ā, hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Làhm: Tèngyàhngóng sèhgàng hóu hóusihk ge, yáuhmóuh sèhgàng a?
Fógei: Yáuh.
Lòh: Hóu, Ngóhdeih yiu léuhngwún sèhgàng, juhng yiu yātgo hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Fógei: Jyúsihk yiu dī mātyéh ne? Yáuh mihn, chàaufaahn, séuigaau.
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh mihn a?
Fógei: Jyùyuhkmihn, ngàauhyuhkmihn, yèuhngyuhkmihn tùhngmàaih chàaumihn.
Lòh: Sihah ngàauhyuhkmihn, hóu m̀hhóu?
Làhm: Hóu ah.

(Gwojó yātjahn'gaan, fógei sung choi. Joi gwo yātjahn, kéuihdeih sihkyùhnfaahn.)

Làhm: Ōn-Nèih, sihkbáau meih a?
Lòh: Hóu báau ah.
Làhm: Hóu ā. Fógei, màaihdāan m̀hgòi.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Food Terms: Romanized/ Chinese
Photo - Dim Sum | Photo - Chinese Restaurant ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

American English: Word View, click below to listen
Lesson 5: Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn

Play Video

(Làhm Yèuhng-jí tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih yahpdou yātgàan chāangún chóhdài.)

Lòh Ōn-Nèih: M̀hgòi, fógei, dím sung a.

(Fógei lójó yātfàn choidāan gwolèih.)

Fógei: Bīnwái dím sung a?
Làhm Yèuhng-jí: Ngóh gāmyaht chénghaak; Ōn-Nèih, néih dím sung !
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh nàhsáu síuchoi a?
Fógei: Yáuh yùh-hèung-sèh-sì ā, chàu-sàam-sìn ā, hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Làhm: Tèngyàhngóng sèhgàng hóu hóusihk ge, yáuhmóuh sèhgàng a?
Fógei: Yáuh.
Lòh: Hóu, Ngóhdeih yiu léuhngwún sèhgàng, juhng yiu yātgo hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Fógei: Jyúsihk yiu mātyéh ne? Yáuh mihn, chàaufaahn, séuigaau.
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh mihn a?
Fógei: Jyùyuhkmihn, ngàauhyuhkmihn, yèuhngyuhkmihn tùhngmàaih chàaumihn.
Lòh: Sihah ngàauhyuhkmihn, hóu m̀hhóu?
Làhm: Hóu ah.

(Gwojó yātjahn'gaan, fógei sung choi. Joi gwo yātjahn, kéuihdeih sihkyùhnfaahn.)

Làhm: Ōn-Nèih, sihkbáau meih a?
Lòh: Hóu báau ah.
Làhm: Hóu ā. Fógei, màaihdāan m̀hgòi.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Food Terms: Romanized/ Chinese
Photo - Dim Sum | Photo - Chinese Restaurant ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com

American English: Sentence View, click below to listen
Lesson 5: Hái Chāangún Sihkfaahn

Play Video

(Làhm Yèuhng-jí tùhng Lòh Ōn-Nèih yahpdou yātgàan chāangún chóhdài.)

Lòh Ōn-Nèih: M̀hgòi, fógei, dím sung a.

(Fógei lójó yātfàn choidāan gwolèih.)

Fógei: Bīnwái dím sung a?
Làhm Yèuhng-jí: Ngóh gāmyaht chénghaak; Ōn-Nèih, néih dím sung lā!
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh nàhsáu síuchoi a?
Fógei: Yáuh yùh-hèung-sèh-sì ā, chàu-sàam-sìn ā, hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Làhm: Tèngyàhngóng sèhgàng hóu hóusihk ge, yáuhmóuh sèhgàng a?
Fógei: Yáuh.
Lòh: Hóu, Ngóhdeih yiu léuhngwún sèhgàng, juhng yiu yātgo hàahmséui-daaih-hā.
Fógei: Jyúsihk yiu dī mātyéh ne? Yáuh mihn, chàaufaahn, séuigaau.
Lòh: Néihdeih yáuh mātyéh mihn a?
Fógei: Jyùyuhkmihn, ngàauhyuhkmihn, yèuhngyuhkmihn tùhngmàaih chàaumihn.
Lòh: Sihah ngàauhyuhkmihn, hóu m̀hhóu?
Làhm: Hóu ah.

(Gwojó yātjahn'gaan, fógei sung choi. Joi gwo yātjahn, kéuihdeih sihkyùhnfaahn.)

Làhm: Ōn-Nèih, sihkbáau meih a?
Lòh: Hóu báau ah.
Làhm: Hóu ā. Fógei, màaihdāan m̀hgòi.

____________Additional Notes____________
This lesson shown with Chinese Characters
[Conventions and Grammatical Terms | Particles | Food Terms: Romanized/ Chinese
Photo - Dim Sum | Photo - Chinese Restaurant ]


We welcome your feedback on these lessons. If you would like to use exercises for each lesson such as Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, and Listening Dictation that keep track of your score and progress ad-free, subscribe to this course today!
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter

Copyright 1995-2017 Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Used under license, see https://languagecanvas.com